As Vyasa Maharshi explained the general manner in which Brahmanas are expected to perform their duties towards Devas and Pitru ganaas with Havya-Kavyas or oblations to Agni and other tasks of virtue, the Munis requested the Maharshi to outline the rudiments of ‘Sadaachaara’ or the fundamentals of Ideal Values of Virtuous Life viz. or the Worthy Principles of Moral Conduct / Good Behavior.
Grihastena Sadaakaarya maachaara pari-rakshanam,
Nahyaachaara viheenasya bhadramatra paratravaa,
Yagna daana tapaaseeha Purushasya na bhuyatey,
Bhavanti yah sadaachaaram samullanghya pravartatey/
( Grihastaas or family-persons ought to observe and protect Sadaachaara Pravartana as those without it would neither have ‘Iham’ / the contentment of current life or ‘Param’of post-life; to those who neglect the principles of Sadaachaara are not eligible to the fruits of Yagna- Daana-Tapas). Grihastaas are expected to follow the basic principles of Dharma-Artha and Kaama during the first three quarters of one’s life and in the last quarter of life to activities pertaining to Moksha. Also, half of one’s expected span of life is to be spent with the deeds oriented to Nitya-Naimittika Karmas or daily and occasional tasks of virtue; the persons concerned might perform such deeds as to involve Bharana-Poshana or sustenance and ful-fillment of family needs. But the last quarter of life should be exclusively spent on activitees aiming at the collection of ‘Mula Dhana’ of fruits meant for the aftermath of life . In oher words, ‘Dharmaacharana’or practice of Virtue has to be an under-current in the Samsaara Sagara in all the phases of life, especially in the last quarter of life. Care must be taken that each of the ‘Purusharthas’should not be contradictory to each other. In other words, Dharma should propel such Artha that should not inhibit Dharma; Kaama should not defeat the aspect of Dharma and Artha and likewise Moksha has to be a logical conclusion of the preceding Purusharthas:
Paraspara anubandhaamscha sarvaanetaanvichintayet,
Vipareetaanubandhaamscha budhyadhvam taandwiojottama/
Dharmo Dharma anubandhaartho Dharmaana atmaartha peedakah,
Ubhaabhyaam cha dwidhaa kaamam teyna thou dwidhaa punah/
A dutiful person has to wake up at the Brahma muhurtha time and think of Dharma and Artha, leave the bed, perform the morning ablutions and commence Sandhya Vandana even when Stars are visible on the Sky. Asatpralaapamanrutam Vaakpaarushyam cha varjayet, Asacchaastra -masadwaada masatpeyvaam cha vai Dwijaah/ (Blabbering lies, talking offensibly, taking resort to arguments of Nastik nature, reading wrong books and writings, giving service to vicious persons must be avoided at any cost. Keeping mental control, daily Havan in the morning and evening should be done dutifully; never try to look at Surya at the Sunrise and Sunset; combing the hair, looking at the mirror, cleaning the teeth, and executing Deva Tarpana must be done well before the Sunrise; avoiding ablutions at Public places, Tirthas and Kshetras; looking at, talking to and touching girls during menses periods; indulging in ablutions in water bodies must be avoided let alone bathing with women; leaving hairs, rotten food, ash, coal, threads, ropes, metallic material and any other offensive materials oaught not to be thrown in running water and worse in still waters. Men and women of virtue should never take food before worshipping Devas, Parents, Guests and elders or those with illnesses; eat food observing silence and not moving about; never unduly criticise food preparations; never consume nor accept food from the plates of others; never ever spread rumours; never touch-let alone use the seat, bed, vessels, and personal belongings of persons with questionable credentials; never wear single vastra in the worship of Deities, or reverences to Gurus and elders; never urinate in water, fire and in Public places; never bathe or sleep in nudity even in closed places; never apply oil while taking baths; never face Brahmanas, Cows, Agni, Surya, Chandra and Nakshatras; avoid to perform ablutions facing north in day time and south in the nights; give way politely to Brahmanas, Officials, elders, women in confinement, persons with illnesses, handicaps, drunkenness, loose character women, those who help, children, the arrogant, and generally the avoidable; perform parikrama of temples, elders, Gurus, trees and road junctions from the right side; never wear other’s clothes, jewellery, shoes and paadarakshaas; never take head bath with oil on Chaturdashi, Ashtami, and Pournami; never shake feet nor lift hands up; never press one foot with another foot; never brag nor belittle others either on one to one basis or worse still in public; never insult the poor, the ugly, the mentally unstable, the intoxicated, and such other abnormal persons; never give punishment to anybody except sons or Sishyas only with a view to reforming or correcting but never with pre-conceived views, arrogance or vengeance; never drag chairs or cots or any furniture items with feet; never sleep facing north and west but keep the head to south or east; never apply chandan etc. without taking bath; never wear torn clothes; never eat food with dropped hairs, ant or flies-eaten, or seen by dogs ; do not eat with salt kept separately on a plate; never sleep after sun-rise or at sun-set timings; never eat food without taking bath, without properly seated, while in the food or half-asleep; without being attentive or half-heartedly; take food in the morning or evening without taking bath; never sleep in bed with unknown women:
Paradaaraa na gantavyaah purushena vipaschitaa,
Ishtaapurttaayushaam hantree paradaaraa gatirmrunaam/
Na heedrusha manaayushyam lokey kinchana vidyatey,
Yaadrusham Purushasyeha paradaaraabhimarshanam/
(Noble men would never resort to Para Stree Sangama and those who did so would not only lose their image, conscience, mental peace and longevity); one must perform ‘Achamana’ before Sandhya-Devaagni-Pitru Karya-Guru Vandana-Puja-Bhojana timings with clean, foamless, and bad-smelling water facing Dakshina or Uttara / South or North; while performing Achamana, one should avoid five kinds of ‘mruda’ or earth viz. just outside water bodies, from the backyard of one’s own home, near a mouse’s hole, or near around a bath room place and near a water-well; the Achamana should be done after washing hands and feet, and three or four times, twice after wiping eyes, ears, face, nose, lips and head; while doing Achamana, there should not be sounds of slurpings, coughs, sneezes, spittings, gas and if the latter happen then touch right ears and look upward to see Surya Deva and repeat Achamana thrice; do not rattle teeth, pound body parts, and avoid all kinds of mannerisms; never practise Swadhyaya of Vedas, or Sacred Mantras while eating, travelling, walking and lying down; avoid marriages of girls of seven generations before on the paternal side and five generations before on the maternal side; Kshura Karma (hair cut) should not be done facing north and the avoidable dates for the task are Chaturthi, Navami and Chaturdashi; do worship Devas in the early morning hours, pre-noon to Gurus and human beings and mid-day to Pitru-Devas; never sleep during day time, much less unite with wife; rajaswala women should observe four nights of menses and observance of five nights would assure Purushatwa in next birth; in any case, observing aloofness from husband for five nights would be rercommended; man-woman unity on even nights after menses would bless male progeny, and on un-even nights, female progeny. Such unity on festival days the progeny would end up in the birth of Adharma Santaana, while in the Sandhya timings would result in napumsakas; never cut jokes in respect of Devatas, Vedas, Dwijaas, Sadhus, Gurus, Pativratas, Yagnaas, Tapaswis and Parivratas; never make friends with mentally retarded, arrogant, stupid, corrupt, characterless, immoral, extra-polite, extravagant, reckless, antagonistic, Asamartha / incapable, impolite, ungrateful, argumentative, cantankerous and irritable; but give respects to Sahrudayas or Good-natured, Yagna dikshitas, Rajas, Snatakas or those who have completed studies in Gurukula, and father-in-law and provide them all considerations.
Samvatsara Abdika Vidhi: One should sincerely perform house- hold duties especially in the context of Samvatsara Abdikaas. After ushering in the Brahmanas with reverences, perform Archana at the Vaiswadeva Sthaana or the Place for Pitras; then at Deva sthaanaas or Four Places for worship to Agni, Prajapati, Griha Devataas and Kashyapa, followed by the fifth Ahuti or oblation of Ghee to the above Devas respecvtively. These oblations would be followed by Bali Puja; in this Puja there would be three vessels – one pertaining to Parjanya or Varuna first; second to Abdevata or Jala /Water and third to Bhu Devi; in these three Places, Bali or offerings of cooked rice as small portions should be offered in three manika paatras or earthen patras; then the offerings of the Bali portions should be addressed to Vaayu in ten directions of East, West, South and North and the repesctive Sub –Directions. Thereafter, Bali is addressed to Brahma, Antariksha, and Surya. In the Northern Direction balis are addressed to Vishwa Devas and Vishjwa Bhutaas; and to further north bali is offered to Usha and Bhupati. Thus far the Deva Puja; this would be followed by Pitru Puja in Apasavya position of Yagnopaveta: Swadhaa cha sama ityuktwa Pitrubhyaschaiva dakshiney, Krtuwaapasavyam Vaayavyaam yakshmaitattheti sampadan/ Annavasesha misram vai thoyam dadyaadyathavidhi, Devaanaancha tatah kuryaad Braahmanaanaam Namaskriyaa/ (While changing the direction of Yagnopaveeta to Praacheena direction from the normal position of left to right, the Karta has to recite the Mantra viz. SWADHAAYAINAMAH facing the Pitaraas in the Dakshina disha; then the Mantra viz. YAKSHMAI TATTEY should be recited and leave water in the Vayavya direction. After changing the position of the Yagnopaveeta in the normal position of Savyam, the Karta has then to perform Namaskara with folded hands to Devas and the Brahmanas representing Devas.
Now the descripton of Tirthas: On the right hand thumb’s upper portion of any person there is a line stated to be the ‘Brahma Tirtha’ situated and from there only the Achamaneeya or sipping of water is to be done; the place where the tarjani or the pointing finger touches the middle portion of the right thumb is known as the ‘Pitru Tirtha’ where the tarpanas or water oblations and Pinda-pradaanas are to be executed from that place. The finger tops are known as ‘Deva Tirtha’ and all tarpana and other duties addressed to Devas are to be performed from that place; the little finger is the representation of ‘Prajapati Tirtha’ and Prajapati-oriented Tarpanaas and other tasks are to be done from this little finger.
Other do’s and dont’s by way of ‘Sadaachaara Pravartana’ were described by Veda Vyasa as follows: Agni and Jala are not to be handled simultaneously; feet should not be drawn before Devas, Gurus, Parents and Brahmanas; looking at a cow milching a calf should not be gazed at; drinking water by palmful hands should be shunned; long duration delays of urination and defecation must be avoided; Agni should not be blown with mouth. A place of living where the following provisions are non-existent are better be left for good : Yatra Vipraa na vastavyam Yatra nnaasti chatushtayam, Runa pradaataa Vaidyascha srotriyah sajanaa Nadee, Jita bhrutyo Nrupo yatra Balavaan Dharma tatparah, Tatra nityam vaseytpraagnah kutah kunrupato sukham/ (One should desert a Place where there is no lender of money, a Physician, a virtuous Brahmana, a running water body and a King who is unable to control his subordinates).
As regards the kind of Bhojan that one should consume, any fried items kept for long or even any type of food ought to be avoided. Any items so stored for more than two days, especially made of wheat and fried in oil or ghee should be refrained from consumption. Each time an item used for cooking or eating made of stone, gold, silver, cloth, utensil etc. must be washed.Utensils in which fried items are prepared wouldget cleaned by hot water. If and when rotten food is consumed, fasting on three following nights should purify the person conerned. Coming into contact by touch with a woman in menses, of a new born baby, a chandala or a dead body must necessarily take head bath. A Brahmana touching a wet bone must also get purified by a bath, but coming into touch a dry bone should perform Achamana or sipping spoonful of clean water and look up Surya Deva or a cow-face. Never cross human cough remains, urine and excreta, and such impurities and if one did itby mistake, the feet as also the padarakshas must be washed. Never see or converse with women in menses, fallen women, women in conception, napumsakas, nude persons, chandala, and those who carry dead persons and if done so by mistake, one must look at Sun and sky. Personal concact with inedible food, mendicant, cat, donkey, chicken, an abandoned person, chandala, pig, or any such questionable matter or person would be absolved only with bathing. Performance of Nityakarma should not be disturbed at any cost and any infringements would call for Prayaschitthaas or atonements by ‘Maranashoucha’ or ‘Jananashoucha’!
Ashuchi-Shuchi Vidhhana: Ashoucha is observed by Brahmanas for ten days, Kshatriyas for twelve days, Vaishyas for fifteen days and others for one month. Then Ashoucha is terminated as per ‘Shastrokta Karmas’as prescribed.Even before the Ashuchi Suddhi, there would be a ‘Mritaka daaha samkaara’ ( assuaging the thirst of the departed soul or ‘pretatma’) to be observed by Sagotris or those whon have the same Gotra, by visiting / bathing twelve water bodies on the first, fourth,seventh, and ninth days after the demise. On the fourth day of the demise, the burnt bone remains of the ashes of the body are to be collected from the burial ground and this procedure is called ‘Asthi Sanchayana’ and there after the remains are immersed in a Sacred River for ‘Asthi Nimajjana’. ‘Samaanodaka Purushas’are freed from Ashuchi after the prescribed tenth day.
On the arrival of a child, the father has to take vastrasahita snaana. After the Janana Ashuchi, Brahmana-Kshatriya-Vaishya and others are freed from the Ashuchi on the tenth, twelfth, fifteenth and thirtieth days and after observing the ‘Shastrokta Dharma’, Shanti Homa- Puja- Namakarana-Bhojana-Daana and other formalities are observed. Such indeed is the Sadaachaara-Pravartana:
Dharmaartha Kaamam sampraapya paratreyaha cha shobhaanam,
Idam rahasya maayushyam dhanyambuddhi vivardhanam/
Sarva Paapaharam Punyam Shripustyaarogyam Shivam,
Yashah keertipradamnruunaam Tejobala vivarthanam/
Anushtheyam sadaa pumbhihi Swargasaadhanamuttamam,
Brahmanyaih Kshatriyairvaishyaih Shudraaischa Munisattamaah!
Sadaachaara Pravartana on the above lines by Varnas would indeed bestow the benefits of Dharma-Artha- Kaama-Moksaha as this indeed is the secret message of Ideal- Living which demolishes all types of Sins, besides providing recognition, longevity, prosperity, good health, all-round fulfillment!
Mentioning the major Principles of Righteous Living,Veda Vyasa descibed Varnaashram Dharmas as follows: About Brahmanas: Dayaadaana tapo Deva Yagna Swaadhaaya tatparaihi, Nityodaki bhaveydwipraha kuryaacchaagni parigraham/ Brahmanas are required to practise Daana, Daya, Tapas, Deva-Pitru Yagnas, Swaadhyaya; they should be ‘Nityodakis’ or undaunted by Snaanas irrespective of seasons and ‘Agnopaasakas’or engaged in the pracice of Agni Karyaas. They might perform Yagnas on behalf of others also to eke their livelihood. They should teach Vedas to sishyas / students and could accept ‘Daana Pratigraha’ as a part of their ‘Shat Karmas’ as prescribed. Sarvalokahitam-kuryaanaahitam-kasyachid-Dwijaah,MaitriSamasta-tatveshuBrahmannyosttamamam dhanam/ (Brahmanaas are required to work for the general welfare and well being of the Society as a totality and indeed this should be the basdic Dharma of any Brahmana.) Kshatriyas: This class is to defend and administer the Society, promote its interests, facilitatate Yagnas and the Virtuous Tasks; punish the Evil interests and ensure peace and prosperity. Vaishyas: This class has to perform Pashu paalana, Vaanijya, Krishi / Vyavasaaya or farming; equally importantly Vaishyas have to perform certain duties of Yadhyana, Yagna, Daana, Dharma, Nitya Naimittika Karmas, Anushthaana, Brahmana Poshana and Kraya Vikraya. Rest are expected to serve the earlier Varnaas in the execution of their respective duties and at the same time observe Sarva Bhuta Daya, politeness, diligence, truthfulness, patience, capacity to withstand the vagaries of seasons, friendliness and equamimity. Veda Vyasa also mentioned ‘Aapaddharmaas’ of Brahmanas rendering Kshatriya Dharmas, Kshatriyas assuming the duties of Vaishyas and so on. [Maha Bhagavata Purana provided escape clauses in the context of Varnaashrama Dharma: Yasya yallakshanam drusyata tat teniva vinirdisat/ In other words: the aspects of aptitude and practice may be endorsed; as such the Principles are of general regulative nature while in practice, the updated considerations of ‘Desha-Kaala-Maana Paristhithis’ would indeed prevail].
Referring to Varna Sankarana or slippages of VarnaDharma,Veda Vyasa quoted Shivaa:
BrahmanyamDevi dushpraaptam Visargaadbrahmanam Shubhey,
Kshatriyo Vaishya Shudroavaa Nisargaaditimaymatih
Shreshtham Varnamanupraapyata smaadaakshipytey punah/
Sthito Brahmandharmerna Brahmanyamupajeevati,
Kshatriyo vaadha Vaishyovaa Brahma bhuyam sa gacchati/
Yasya Vipratwamutsrujya Kshatra dharmaa-nnishavatey,
Brahmanyatsa pari bhrashtah Kshatra yonau Prajaayatey/
(Devi! Brahmanatwa is not easy to attain and is was my arrangement to let human beings be created as per their ‘Swabhavaas’ or characteristics. But some Brahmanas leave their natural instincts and slip down in their actions; they tend to adopt Kshatriya Dharma and thus get born as Kshatriyas); in the same manner, Vaishyas also slip down.
Yastu Shudraha swadharmena Jnaanaa Vijnaana vaancchuchih,
Dharmajno Dharma niratah sadharma phalamasnute/
Brahma’s decision as per Brahma-Vaakya or Veda pramana is that Brahmanas ought not to consume Ugraanna, Ganaanna, Shraaddhaanna and Shudraanna and if a Brahmana while dying had that kind of Anna in his Jathara / belly would be destined to be reborn in another varna; conversely, others who attaine Brahmanatwa in his ongoing life had the type of Brahmana Bhojana as his jatharaagni would be reborn as a Brahmana and that would be Mahadeva’s dispensation:
Yasyaannenaavaseshena jathareymriyatey Dwijah,
Taam Taam yonim vrajedvipro yasyaannamupajeevati!
(Whatever may be the Varna in which a person dies with that kind of Jatharaagni has in his /her belly, that person would be reborn with the typical characteristics of that Varna!). The reported view that Parama Shiva expressed-as conveyed by Veda Vyasa was:
Na yonirnaapi samskaaro na Shrutirnacha santatih,
Kaaranaani Dwijasttvasya vrutthamevatu vidheeyatey/
(It is not by birth, upbringing, knowledge of Vedas and by the Offspring that a person possesses, but Brahmanatwa is a decisive factor merely on one’s own behavior, conduct and actions)!
Dharmaadharma Nirupana: Parama Shiva further delineated to Devi Parvati about those who had Trikarana Shuddhi, Indriya Nigraha, and Ahimsaacharana (Clealiness of Body-Mind-Heart; Control of Senses and Non-Violence). They are eligible to Swarga if they had no desire for other’s money except for one’s own well earned; if they did not react to other women except one’s own lawful wife while treating truly and heartily the others as his mothers, sisters and daughters; if they serve all the Beings with fellow- feelings of warmth and consideration; if they would hurt none directly or indirectly by way of speech, thought or action; if they were always engaged in charity, humility with noble actions, Tapasya, ‘Bahyaantara Shuchi’ or cleanliness physically and internally; if they were truthful to themselves or their conscience as also transparent in their deeds; if their way of conversation was clear without hidden meanings, convincing, sweet, soft, and endearing without harshness, and arrogance or uppishness; if they were Jnaanavaan, dayaavaan and Kshamaavaan or with maturity, merciful, and forgiving; if they avoided sinners, known rogues and confirmed offenders; if they were full of dedication and devotion to Devas, respectful to Gurus, Vidwans and Elders; and in short their natural instincts were ideal and deserving emulation.
Asked by Devi Parvati as to how the Aayurdaaya or life-span of a Human Being was determined, Parama Shiva explained that every person would have to necessarily reap the fruits of one’s own actions; some would be extremely crude, arrogant and cruel resorting to violence in the past births as also in the on-going life and the compounded effect would result in the longevity of the current Janma.
Paapena karmanaa Devi ukto himsaadhibhuryutah,
Ahitam Sarva Bhutaanaam heenaayurupajaayatey/
Shubhena karmanaa Devi prouni ghaata vivarjitah,
Nikshistra shastro nirdando na himsati kadaachana/
Na ghaata yati no hantighnantam naivaamunodatey,
Sarva Bhteshu Sasneho yathaatmani tathaaparey/
Edrushah Purusho nityam Devi Devatwamasnutey,
Upapannaan Sukhaanbhogaan sadaashnaati mudaayutah/
Athaachenmaanushey lokey kadaachidupapadyatey,
Esha Deerghaayushaam maargah suvruttaanaam su karmanaam/
Praani himsaa vimokshena samudeetatah/
( Those who were in the habit of committing sins and resorting to ‘Himsa’, they would not only be detested generally but would be subject to ‘Ayuksheena’or decreasing life-span; conversely those who led a life of merciful and cordial nature would gain nlong life but derseve Devatwa . Shunning violence is the key to longevity!)
Devi Parvati asked Maha Deva further as to what type of Karmaas / deeds and Daanaas / charities would have to be performed to upgrade a person to Swarga Loka and the latter replied as follows: A person with such desire should respect Brahmanas; feed the needy with Bhakshya-Bhojya-Anna-Paaneeyas and Vastraas; consruct or be an instrument to cause construction of Yagna Mandapas, Dharmashaalaas, water bodies, wells and ‘Sabha Mandapaas’ for public utility; execute Nitya-Naimittika Karmaas with fortitude and faith; and give away in charity of Aasanaas, Shayanas, Dhana-Dhanya-Vastu-Vaahana-Griha-Vastras. Those who could afford to give away particularly the needy, the helpless, the beggars, the blind, the depressed and tha have-nots turn away their faces or wantonly avoid them and those greedy, miserly, arrogant and non-believers of God would be by the turn of Kaala Chakra would definitely be paid back in their own births or in the subesequent ones but they should surely be in the opposite placements.
Maha Deva explained to Devi Parvati further about Vaachika Dharma Swarupas:
Atmahetoh paraarthey vaa Adharmaashrita meyvacha,
Ye mrushaa na vadanteeha tey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Vrutyartham Dharma hetorvaa kaama kaaraatthadhaivacha,
Anrutam ye na bhaashantey tey Naraah Swarhagaaminah/
Shlakshnaam Vaaneem Swacchha varnaam mathuraam paapa varjitaam,
Swagateynaabhi bhaashantey naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Parusham ye na bhaashantey katukam nishthuram tathaa,
Na paishunyarataah Samtastey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
ishunam na prabhaashantey Mitrabhedakaram tathaa,
para peedaakaram chaivatey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Ye varjayanti parusham paradroham cha Maanavaah,
Sarva Bhuta samaadaantaastey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Shathapralaapaa dwirataa viruddha pari varjakaah,
Sowmya pralaapino nithyam tey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Na Kopaadvyaharantey ye Vaachaam hridaya daarineem,
Shantim vindati ye kruddhaastey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Yesha Vaanee kruto Devi Dharmah Sevyah sadaa Naraih,
Shubha Satya Gunaarnityam Varjaneeyaa mrushaa budhaih/
(Never ever tell Asatya or Untruth either for one’s own sake, for the sake of others, for the sake of life’s betterment, for the sake of Dharma or even for the sake of one’s own life. Never converse with harshness and insolence, nor create misunderstandings and carry tales; the language to be used has to be sincere, soft, heartfelt, and without causing offence: such persons would indeed find their way to Swarga; this indeed the Vaachika Dharma Swarupa! Only such persons whose language is not mixed with Parushata, Nishthurata, Paishunyata, Mitrabheda karana, Paradroha karana, Shatha pralaapana, Hridaya daaruneeta and parapeedaakara!)
Yet another clarification sought by Devi Parvati from Maha Deva was in respect of Maanasika Karmaas:
Maanaseyneha Dharmena Samyukaah Purushaahsadaah,
Swargam gacchaanti Kalyaani! Tanmey keertayatah shrunu/
Dushpraneetena Manasaa Dushpranee- taantaraakrutih,
Naro badhyeta yeneha shrunu vaa tam Shubhaananey/
Aranye vijaneynyastam paraswam drusyatey yadaa,
Manasaapi na gruhnanti tey Naraah Swrgagaaminah/
Tathaiva paradaaraanye kaamavrutthaa rahogataah,
Manasaapi na himsanti tey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Sharum Mitramcha ye nithyam tulyena manasaa naraah,
Bhajanti Maitryam Samgamya tey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Shrutavanto dayaavantah shuchayah Satyasangaraah,
Swairarthaih parisamthushtaastey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Avairaaey twanaa yaasaa Maitra chittarataah sadaa,
Sarva bhuta dayaavantastey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Jnaatavanrtah kriyaavantah Kshamaavantah Suhrutpriyaah,
Dharmaadharma vido nityam tey Naraah Swargagaamionah/
Shubhaanaashumaabhaan aam cha Karmanaam phalasanchaye,
Niraakaamkshaascha ye Devi tey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Paapopetaan varjayanti Deva Dwija paraah sadaa,
Samuthhaanamanu praaptaastey Naraah Swarga gaaminah/
Shubhaih Karm,a phalaairdevi mayaitaa parikeertitaah,
Swarga maarga paraa bhuyah/
( Devi! Following are the Maanasika Dharmaas that are the factors of accomplishing Swarga: A person who should control his mind so as to get rid temptations of even discovering ready availability of huge sums of somebody else’s money in a lonely jungle! Even in loneliness, the person should not get disturbed with the thoughts of other women; he should observe absolute equanimity with all human beings and concentrate on Veda Shastraadhyana with intense feelings of mental strength, cleanliness and truthfulness with reflective thoughts of segregating Dharma and Adharma and Shubha and Ashubha, without aspiring for returns or fruits of such thoughts and deeds. The person concerned has to purge the heart of mind-driven sinful aberrations but should sustain the thoughts of the Supreme Truth and Energy.)
Finally, Parama Shiva affirmed:
Karma paasha nibaddhaanaam naraanaam duhkha bhaaginaam,
Naanyopaayam prapashyaami Vaasudevaatparam dwijaah/
Ye pujayanti tam Devam Shankha chakra gadaadharam,
Vaangmanaha Karmabhih samyaktey yaanti paramaam gatim/
Kim teshaam jeeviteyneha pashuvaccheshti teynacha,
Yeshaam na pravanam chittham Vaasudevey Jaganmaye/
(All the human beings who were tied tight with Karma paashaas and the resultant distress have one and only one unique source viz. Vaasudeva, the Shankha Chakra Gadaa dhara; he should be worshipped with ‘Manovaakkaaya karmas’ or with mind, tongue and deeds to take steps forward to Moksha; of which avail is there like animals engaged always in eating and sleeping if a maanava fails to worship Bhagavan Krishna!)
Pitaamahaadapi parah Shaswatah Purusho Harih,
Krishno jaambunadaabhaso vyabhrey Surya yi voditah/
dasabaahurmahaa tejaa Devataarinishudanah,
Shri Vatsaanko Hrishikeshaha Sarva Davaivata Pujakah/
(Far superior than Brahma and everlasting is Shri Hari, Vaasudeva or Shri Krishna who shines like the dazzling and magnificent Surya as he is emerging on a cloud-less clear Sky with ten hands and a gloriousSrivatsa as the Supreme Lord of Devas). Whosoever takes refuge in Vaasudeva would be the beloved of the entire Deva Samuha including Brahma and Parama Shiva; it is that Bhakta of Vaasudeva who has nothing beyond to crave!
MahaTatwa Nirnaya: In an endeavour to outline even a misty profile of the Supreme Power, Maharshi Veda Vyasa expressed as follows:
Yattadavyakta majara machintya maja mavyayam,
Anidresya rupam chaa paani paadaatya samyutam,
Vittam Sarvagatam nityam bhuta yoni makaaranam/
Vyaaptam Vyaaptam yatah sarvam pasyanti suurayah,
Tadbrahma paramam dhaama taddhyayam Moksha kaamskshibhih/
Shruti Vaakyoditam Sukshmam tadvishnoh paramam padam,
Utpattim Pralayam chaiva Bhutaa-naamaagatim gatim/
Vetti Vidyaamavidyaam cha sa vaachyo Bhagavaaniti,
Jnaana Shakti balai –shwarya veerya tejaamsya seshatah/
Bhagavadcchabda vaachyaani vinaa heyairgunaadibhih,
Sarvaani tatra bhutaani vasanti Paramaatmani/
Bhuteshucha sa Sarvaatmaa Vaasudevastatah smrutah,
Bhuteshu vasatey yomtarva samtyatra cha taaniyat/
Dhaataa Vidhaataa jagataam Vaasudevastatah Prabhuh,
Sa sarvabhuta prakrutirgunaamscha doshaamscha sarvaa na gunohyateetah/
Ateeta Sarvaavaranokhilaatmaa tenaavrutam yadbhuvanaantaraalam,
Samasta Kalyaana Gunaatmakohi Swashakti leshaadruta bhuta sargah/
Icchhaagruheetaabhi matoru dehah Samsaadhitaasesha jagaddhito sow,
Tejo balaishwarya Mahaavaridhah Swaveerya shaktyaadi gunaaika raashih/
Parah Paraanaam Sakalaana yatra kleshaadayah santi Paraa Pareshey/
Sa Eashwaro Vyashti samashti rupo-avyakta swarupah Prakatah swarupah,
Sarveshwarah Sarvadruksarva vettaa samasta shaktih Parameshwaraakhyah/
Sanjnaayatey yena tadastadosham Shuddham Param Nirmalamekarupam,
Samdrushyatey Vyaapyatha gamyatey vaa tatvajnaana magjnaanamatonyaduktam!
(That Para Brahma Tatwa is Avyakta / Inconceivable, Ajara or Ageless, Achitya or Unimaginable, Avyaya or Indestructible, Anirdeshya or Undefinable, Arupa or Formless, Apaani paada or devoid of hands and feet, Sarvagata Satya or Eternal Truth, Bhutayoni vyaapyavyaapya or omnipresent among all Beings which is presumably comprehensible only by a handful Tatwa Vettas; It is that Superlative Tatwa who is Vishnu; It is that Unknown Prime Energy which Creates, Sustains and Teminates as also possessive of the awareness of the Process of Evolution and the unique capability to distinguish Vidya or Avidya / knowledge or ignorance. It is that Paramatma who has no features, characteristics, impurities or blemishes but is replete with the Magnificent Shat-Shaktis viz. Jnaana-Bala-Ishwarya-Veerya-Tejo-Yasho Shaktis. It is that Sarvaatma and Parama Tatwa- who is acclaimed by Brahma himself in reply to Maharshis as Vaasudeva; He is the Architect and Builder of Sarva Jagat; He is the root cause of the Mula Tatwa or the Prakriti, far beyond the concept of Existence, yet an integral component of Existence. A miniscule atom of his unimaginable Shakti is responsible for the Vyavastha-Sthiti-Laya of the unending series of ‘Bhuvanaantaraalaas’ or the Universes. He is the ‘Tejo Balaiswarya Mahaavarodha Swaveerya Shaktaadi Gunaika Raashi’; He has the Identity of the Vyashti / Uniqueness and Samashti / Totality; He is the Avyata Swarupa as also the Prakata Swarupa / the Unintelligible and yet Perceptible Form; Sarveswara-Sarvadradhta-Sarva Shaktiyuta and Parameswara; He is also Parah-Paraanaam-Paraapareshaa or Farther-Beyond-and Farther Beyond! It is that distinct, pure, transparent, spotless, unpolluted, Wholesome, Outstanding and Singular Entity which is conceived as Maha Tatwa.
It is only that which is recognised as ‘Jnaana’ or the Knowledge and Perception leading any one to that Maha Tatwa or providing clues about that Utmost Ultimate and the rest indeed is ‘Agjnaana’!)