द्रापे अन्धसस्पते दरिद्रन्नीललोहित ।
एषां पुरुषाणामेषां पशूनां माभेर्मारो मो एषां किञ्च नाममत् ।
द्रापे- O producer of disgusting condition, अन्धसः- of food, पते- master (giver of food), दरिद्रत्- O poor one (possessing nothing), Unattached, नीललोहित- Possessing body of half black and half red, एषां- these (of mine), पुरुषाणां- to humans like son, grandson etc., एषां- these (of mine), पशूनां- of animals like cows, sheep etc., माभेः- do not cause fear. एषां- Of these, किञ्चन- anyone, मारः- not be destroyed. मो आममत्- nor suffer from disease.
Having worshipped Sri Parameswara from the second to ninth Anuvakam, prayer is offered in this Anuvakam.
The four terms in the first half of this mantra are terms of address of Sri Parameswara. As he bestows disgusting conditions like sufferings of hell, many miseries like poverty etc. on people in accordance with their sins, he is addressed as द्रापिः here. As he also provides food and protects the world, he is called अन्धसस्पते. Though he thus showers grace as well as punishment, he does not have any special attachment or hatred to anyone and this is indicated by the address दरिद्रत्. The address नीललोहित can be interpreted in two ways- black in neck and red in rest of the body, or, Ardhanariswara with Devi’s part in black and Easwara’s part in red.
In the latter half of the mantra, prayer is offered for freedom from fear and growth with good health of humans and animals dependent on oneself. The addresses in the first half are in accord with this prayer. One can only beg for fearlessness and health from one who produces disgusting conditions like fear, disease etc. as a result of sins and one who bestows food and protects us. As he is accompanied by Uma, whose very form is compassion, he will certainly grant fearlessness, health etc.
Rishi for this mantra is Pulastya; Chandas is Aastarapankti; Devata is Bhairavarudra.
“आगुल्फासितकञ्चुको डमरुकाश्लिष्टो लसत्कुण्डली
शूली कुण्डलितश्रवाः सतिलको मञ्जुक्वणन्नूपुरः ।
देवो भैरववेषभूषिततनुर्ध्येयो मृडानीपतिः ॥“
“One should meditate on Deva, consort of Parvati, with the appearance of Bhairava, wearing black shirt extending down to ankle, holding damaruka in one hand, Trisula in the other hand, wearing beautiful ear-rings, tilaka mark on the forehead, sweet-sounding anklets on the feet, pure and beautiful teeth and white face.”
Chanting of this mantra ten thousand times while duly observing fast will help in attaining the full power of the mantra. Benefits of chanting this mantra include freedom from fear of all creatures, abatement of all fevers, attainment of wealth and darshan of Lord Bhairava.
या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूः शिवा विश्वाहभेषजी ।
शिवा रुद्रस्य भेषजी तया नो मृड जीवसे ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, विश्वाहभेषजी - being medicine for removal of disease, poverty etc. at all times, शिवा- called ‘Sivaa’, शिवा- very auspicious, या- that, ते- your, तनूः- body, रुद्रस्य- of you, who is doctor curing the disease of samsara, भेषजी- being medicine, शिवा- the auspicious (body), तया- with that also, नः- us, जीवसे- for living, मृड- make comfortable.
Parameswara has two forms- ‘Sivaa’ and ‘Ghora’. Of these, ‘Sivaa’ can be considered as two- one, which removes all diseases and miseries like poverty of all people at all times and bestows comforts; other, which bestows Atmagnana, destroys the misery of samsara like birth, death etc. and grants the bliss of Moksha. The term ‘Visvaahabheshaji’ refers to the first form and ‘Rudrasyabheshaji’, the second. The prayer here is for grant of comfortable life by both these forms.
Rishi and Devata for this mantra are Sri Parameswara of the form of Subrahmania; Chandas is Anushtup.
“द्रुतचामीकरप्रख्यं शक्तिपाणिं षडाननम् ।
मयूरवाहनारूढं स्कन्दरूपं शिवं स्मरेत् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara of the form of Subrahmania, brilliant like molten gold, holding the weapon ‘Sakti’ (Vel) in the hand and seated on the peacock mount.”
Full power of this mantra will be realized by doing Pranayama 108 times and chanting this mantra 5000 times. Chanting this mantra will bestow good progeny, nourishment, health and wealth.
इमाँ रुद्राय तवसे कपर्दिने क्षयद्वीराय प्रभरामहे मतिम् ।
यथा नः शमसद्विपदे चतुष्पदे विश्वं पुष्टं ग्रामे अस्मिन्ननातुरम् ॥
तवसे- Strong, कपर्दिने- with matted locks, क्षयद्वीराय- to one whose enemies are destroyed by mere sight, रुद्राय- to Parameswara, who dispels the misery of samsara, इमां मतिं- mental dhyanam, pooja etc., प्रभरामहे- we specially perform. यथा- Following the method by which, नः- to our, द्विपदे- creatures with two legs, चतुष्पदे- animals with four legs, शं- comfort, असत्- will come by, अस्मिन् ग्रामे- in this village of ours, विश्वं- all animals, पुष्टं- well nourished (with no deficiencies), अनातुरम्- free from diseases, असत्- will be (we perform dhyanam, pooja that way).
It is stated here that we adore Sri Parameswara mentally so that in addition to the humans and animals of one’s own, all animals in the village will be happy. The following sloka from Purana makes it clear that if one person in the village or town chants Rudram, all the residents there will be free from disease, poverty and trouble from thieves.
“रुद्राध्यायी वसेद्यत्र ग्रामे वा नगरेपि वा ।
व्याधिदुर्भिक्षचोरादिबाधा तत्र न जायते ॥“
The four adjectives- ‘Rudraya’, ‘Tavase’ etc. convey that Sri Parameswara is capable of granting all comforts to all creatures.
रुद्राय- Can there be any difficulty for one who relieves the person from the misery of samsara, viz. birth and death, in removing small troubles occurring in life!
तवसे- It has been explained in the commentaries of Bhattabhaskara and Sayana that he has the strength required for the above action. In the commentary of Abhinavasankara, the term is considered as ‘तपसे’ meaning – one possessed of the power of Knowledge.
कपर्दिने- This means that he accomplishes tasks not capable of being performed by anyone else.
कं-गङ्गाजलं-पर्दयति- पालयतीति- कपर्दः- जटाजूटः- सः अस्यास्तीति- कपर्दी. It was Parameswara alone who withstood and held in his matted locks the torrential flow of Ganga, falling from the sky and incapable of being stopped by anyone else.
क्षयद्वीराय- This conveys that he possesses unparalleled valour.
It is but appropriate to pray to Parameswara, who has such great powers, for the well being of all.
मृडानो रुद्रोत नो मयस्कृधि क्षयद्वीराय नमसा विधेम ते ।
यच्छं च योश्च मनुरायजे पिता तदश्याम तव रुद्र प्रणीतौ ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, नः- us, मृड- grant desires and make comfortable. उत- Further, नः- to us, मयः- bliss of Moksha, कृधि- grant. क्षयद्वीराय- To the destroyer of our virulent sins, ते- to you, नमसा विधेम- we prostrate and worship. पिता- Our father-like, मनुः- Manu (the first human created by Brahma), यत् शं च- the material comforts, योश्च- and bliss of Moksha untouched by sorrow, तव प्रणीतौ- in your grace, आयजे- earned, तत्- all that, रुद्र- O Parameswara, अश्याम- (by your grace) we also attain.
योः- यूयते- दुःखेन विना भूयते इति योः दुह्खासंभिन्नं सुखं- मोक्ष इत्यर्थः.
Parameswara! Grant us cattle, sons, wealth, food etc. and make us live comfortably in this world. Further, please also grant us the bliss of Moksha. Please do not think as to how to grant Moksha to these sinners. We prostrate and worship you. However terrible our sins may be, will they not be dispelled after we have worshipped you? ‘Kshyadviraya’ was interpreted earlier as the destroyer of enemies by mere sight. Or, we may also interpret that all the virulent sins are destroyed, once we worship him. That through Parameswara’s grace, all happiness of this world as well as the next is attained is not something new, but borne by tradition. It is prayed that the happiness of this world and the next, attained through Parameswara’s grace by Manu, the father of all humans and teacher of dharmas of varnas and asramas to humans, should also be granted to us.
The third and fourth Riks are one mantra only; Rishi is Markandeya; Chandas is Jagati; Devata is Rudra.
“दिव्यसिम्हासनासीनं स्तूयमानं महर्षिभिः ।
प्रसन्नवदनं ध्यायेत् सोमं सोमार्धशेखरम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara, seated on divine throne, worshipped by Maharishis, with jubilant face, wearing half-moon on the head and accompanied by Parvati.”
The main benefit of this mantra is the peace of cattle, birds etc.
मानो महान्तमुतमानो अर्भकं मान उक्षन्तमुत मा न उक्षितम् ।
मानोवधीः पितरं मोत मातरं प्रिया मानस्तनुवो रुद्र रीरिषः ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, नः- our, महान्तं- old persons, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble through disease etc. उत- Further, नः- our, अर्भकं- children, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- our, उक्षन्तं- youth, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. उत- Further, नः- our, उक्षितं- foetus in womb, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- our, पितरं- father, माऽवधीः- do not catch. उत- Further, मातरं- mother, माऽवधीः- do not catch. नः- Our, प्रियाः- loving, तनुवः- bodies, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble.
In addition to praying for the welfare of old persons, children, youth, foetus in womb, father and mother of one’s own, the prayer extends to other relatives of people known to the worshipper; hence the plural ‘नः’ has been used. In this mantra a single usage of ‘मा नः’ would have conveyed the prayer for not troubling all; but owing to the great love of people known to the worshipper, ‘मा नः’ has been used with all terms like ‘महान्तं, अर्भकं’ etc.
Rishi for this mantra is Bhrigu; Chandas is Jagati; Devata is Sri Rudra in the form of Nandiswara.
“बालेन्दुमकुटं देवं तरुणादित्यविग्रहम् ।
ध्यायेन्नन्दीश्वराकारं गणेश्वरसमावृतम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara in the form of Nandikeswara, wearing the crescent on the head, emitting brilliance like Sun and surrounded by Ganadhipatis.”
Chanting this mantra will ensure peace for the relatives of the worshipper.
मानस्तोके तनये मान आयुषि मानो गोषु मानो अश्वेषु रीरिषः ।
वीरान्मानो रुद्र भामितो वधीर्हविष्मन्तो नमसा विधेम ते ॥
रुद्र- O Parameswara, भामितः- you who are angry with us (for not having done things meant to be done), नः- our, तोके- children, तनये- sons, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- Our, आयुषि- lifespan, मा रीरिषः- do not trouble. नः- Our, गोषु- cows, नः अश्वेषु- and our horses, (मा रीरिषः). नः- Our, वीरान्- servants, मावधीः- do not trouble. हविष्मन्तः- With Havis like Charu, Purodasam etc., or things offered with devotion, ते- to you, नमसा- (we) prostrate, विधेम- and serve.
O Parameswara! Whatever may be the sins we have committed, please accept Charu, Purodasam and other offerings, prostrations and other services submitted by us with devotion, forgive us and do not trouble creatures associated with us.
Rishi and Devata for this mantra are Sri Parameswara himself; Chandas is Jagati.
“दधानमेकादशधा विभज्य देहं विशुद्धस्फटिकप्रकाशम् ।
तेजोमयं शूलिनमिन्दुमौलिं विचिन्तयेदत्र सदैव रुद्रम् ॥“
“One should meditate always on Rudra, who has divided his form in eleven ways, shining like pure crystal, holding the brilliant Trisula and wearing Chandra on the head.”
Benefits of this mantra are stated as increase of lifespan and kingdom, good rains, victory in dealings and gambling, gold, relief from great sins, attraction of all people etc.
आरात्ते गोघ्न उत पूरुषघ्ने क्षयद्वीराय सुम्नमस्मे ते अस्तु ।
रक्षा च नो अधि च देव ब्रूह्यथा च नः शर्म यच्छ द्विबर्हाः ॥
गोघ्ने- Destroyer of cows (of sinners), उत- further, पूरुषघ्ने- destroyer of children, grandchildren etc., क्षयद्वीराय- destroyer of all warriors, ते- your, सुम्नं- peaceful form, अस्मे- to us, आरात्- near, अस्तु- let be. च- Further, नः- us, रक्ष- protect. च- Further, देव- O Parameswara, अधिब्रूहि- speak in our favour. अथा च- Further, द्विबर्हाः- Bestower of increased happiness in this and next world, नः- to us, शर्म- material and Moksha happiness, यच्छ- grant.
It has been stated earlier that Parameswara has two forms- terrible and peaceful. He will give darshan with terrible form to sinners. He will trouble their cattle, children and grandchildren. For Parameswara, who destroys all warriors of the world at the final time, it is not a difficult act to trouble sinners and their associates. So the prayer goes: O Parameswara, your form of peace should be near us; let the terrible form be at a long distance. Further please protect us with your peaceful form near at hand. If Devas and others ask you how you can protect sinners like us, you should speak in our favour. Not only that, you should grant all happiness here as well as the bliss of Moksha.
In this mantra the fourth grammatical case in the three words ‘गोघ्ने, पूरुषघ्ने, क्षयद्वीराय’ convey the meaning of the sixth case. These three words are adjectives for ते.
Rishi for this mantra is Atri; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sambhu.
“कुर्वाणं सन्निधौ देव्या देवमानन्दताण्डवम् ।
हुताशनधरं ध्यायेत्तप्तकाञ्चनसन्निभम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara, dancing Tandava of Bliss in the presence of Devi, holding Agni in hand and shining like molten gold.”
By chanting this mantra, one will attain long life and wealth.
स्तुहि श्रुतं गर्तसदं युवानं मृगं न भीममुपहत्नुमुग्रम् ।
मृडा जरित्रे रुद्रस्तवानो अन्यन्ते अस्मन्निवपन्तु सेनाः ॥
(O Speech or Indwelling Soul!) श्रुतं- Famous as ‘Parameswara’, गर्तसदं- dwelling in our heart-cave, युवानं- always youthful and handsome, उपहत्नुं- destroyer of the wicked, मृगं न- like lion, भीमं- terrible, उग्रं- fierce (unconquerable), स्तुहि- praise. रुद्र- O Parameswara, स्तवानः- Praised (you), जरित्र- (to us) being in destructible bodies, मृड- give comfort. सेनाः- Your armies (which spoil our comfort), अस्मत् अन्यं- (other than us) our enemies or sins, निवपन्तु- let destroy.
This mantra is directed at the sense organ of speech or the indwelling soul. One can praise only one who is famous everywhere. The term ‘Srutam’ indicates that Parameswara is very reputed in all Vedas and worlds as ‘Easwara’. There need be no doubt as to whether our praise will ever reach the ears of such a famous God, because he is ‘Gartasada:’, dweller of our heart-cave. He is not worshipped only because he is very great, but he is also ever youthful with bewitching form, as noted by the term ‘yuvanam’. ‘Upahatnum’ conveys that Sri Parameswara would certainly trouble those who violate his orders, not chanting his praise as prescribed and not following all proper dharmas. ‘Mrigam na bhimam’ conveys that while harming evil persons, he is very terrible like a lion breaking the head of an elephant. Here ‘na’ conveys the meaning of a simile like ‘iva’. In order to dispel the doubt as to whether there could be someone stronger than Parameswara like ‘sarabha’ subduing the lion, the term ‘ugram’ has been used. From the authority of passages like ‘नवा ओजीयो रुद्र त्वदस्ति’, ‘तमीश्वराणां परमं महेश्वरम्’ etc., it is clear that there is none stronger than that Lord of lords.
Having thus stated the troubles for those who do not pray to Parameswara, the Rishi explains the benefits of prayer through ‘मृडाजरित्रे’ etc. Pleased with our prayer, please grant us healthy and strong bodies, though destructible and finally the bliss of Moksha. May your armies, opposed to our comforts, destroy the sins, which are our enemies.
Rishi for this mantra is Vyaghra; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sri Rudra.
“उद्यद्भास्करकोटिप्रकाशमाकाशगं भीमम् ।
भीतिघ्नमभयवरदं ध्यायेत् रुद्रं सुरौघनुतम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Sri Rudra, effulgent like a crore of Suns at dawn in the sky, very terrible, destroying the fear of those who surrender, with hands in Abhaya and Varada pose and adored by Devas.”
The main benefit of this mantra is destruction of enemies.
परिणो रुद्रस्य हेतिर्वृणक्तु परित्वेषस्य दुर्मतिरघायोः ।
अवस्थिरा मघवद्भ्यस्तनुष्व मीढ्वस्तोकाय तनयाय मृडय ॥
रुद्रस्य- Of Parameswara, हेतिः- weapon, नः- from us, परिवृणक्तु- leave alone (let them not attack us at any time). अघायोः- Desirous of sin (as cause of anger), परि- on all four sides, त्वेषस्य- of Rudra, bubbling with anger, दुर्मतिः- evil thought (of troubling others) (may leave us). मीढ्वः- O Parameswara, granter of all desires of devotees, (your weapons and thoughts) स्थिरा- faultless (will never become infructuous). मघवद्भ्यः- With us, performing prayers and prostrations, अवतनुष्व- withdraw that weapon. तोकाय- To (generally our) children, तनयाय- to (particularly our) sons, मृडय- grant comfort.
Parameswara gets angry at the sins committed by people. Hence the thought of harming them arises. Place, time, person etc., which can cause many miseries, become Parameswara’s weapons. They harm the people, causing them pain; this is the order of things. In this mantra, it is prayed that starting from sin, till experience of pain, nothing should occur. Even if we had sinned earlier, be pleased with our prayers, prostrations etc. and withdraw your weapons from us. Please also alter the thought of harming us. Further, please grant comfort to our children in general and sons in particular.
Rishi and Devata for this mantra is Parameswara himself; Chandas is Trishtup.
“गजचर्मावृततनुं स्फुरत्प्रहरणोज्वलम् ।
सर्वपापहरं ध्यायेद्देवं कुन्जरभेदिनम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Parameswara, wearing elephant-skin, holding shining weapons, destroyer of all sins and exterminator of Gajasura.”
The main benefits of this mantra include getting good sons etc.
मीढुष्टम शिवतम शिवो नः सुमना भव ।
परमे वृक्ष आयुधं निधाय कृत्तिं वसान आचर पिनाकं बिभ्रदागहि ॥
मीढुष्टम- Giver of all desired objects (to worshippers), शिवतम- Bestower of auspiciosness, नः- to us, शिवः- granter of auspicious things, सुमनाः- with favourable disposition, भव- be. परमे- Superior, वृक्षे- in the banyan tree (in Kailasa), आयुधं- your terrible weapon, निधाय- putting aside, कृत्तिं- tiger-skin, वसानः- wearing, आचर- please come to us. पिनाकं- Bow alone, बिभ्रत्- wearing as decoration (please come to us).
O Parameswara, the bestower of all desired objects to worshippers! Please be granter of auspiciousness, well disposed and kind to us. As an indication of this, please leave all your terrible weapons in the superior banyan tree in Kailasa out of our sight and come before us, wearing tiger-skin and holding your bow in hand as a decoration.
It has been described that Sri Parameswara is seated in a banyan tree in Kailasa, 100 yojanas tall and 175 yojanas wide (one yojana is roughly 13 kilometres) and that banyan tree is the refuge of those anxious to get Moksha. Here it is prayed that the weapons be left in that tree. As Parameswara’s form with his bow ‘Pinakam’ and wearing tiger-skin is praised as bestower of many merits in Sruti passages like ‘Pinakahasta: Krittivasa:’, ‘Praneswara: Krittivasa: Pinaki’ etc., it is prayed here that he should appear in that form.
Parameswara wears tiger-skin not because of non-availability of other good clothing. Is it appropriate that for Parameswara, the bestower of all wealth on all including Brahma and Indra, there is no clothing for his own wear? Why does he wear tiger-skin then? It is because Parameswara enjoys the bliss of Self alone and is indifferent to pleasures of objects. Hence he sets aside the superior clothing worn by those desirous of pleasures of objects and wears tiger-skin. Parameswara likes tiger-skin very much. That is why it is prayed here that he should appear before us, wearing tiger-skin.
Rishi for this mantra is Vairaja; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sambhu.
“मङ्गलायतनं देवं युवानमतिसुन्दरम् ।
ध्यायेद्वनचराकारमागच्छन्तं पिनाकिनम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Sri Parameswara, of very handsome form, with appearance of a hunter, holding the bow ‘Pinakam’ in hand, the abode of all auspiciousness and youthful.”
Chanting this mantra will dispel fear of king, trouble from thieves and fear of life.
विकिरिद विलोहित नमस्ते अस्तु भगवः ।
यास्ते सहस्रँ हेतयोन्यमस्मन्निवपन्तु ताः ॥
विकिरिद- Destroyer of miseries like sin, disease, poverty etc., विलोहित- Of white complexion, भगवः- Possessor of six glories like wealth etc., ते- to you, नमः अस्तु- may prostration be. ते- Your, याः- which, सहस्रं हेतयः- thousands of weapons, ताः- those, अस्मत् अन्यं- our enemy (sin), निवपन्तु- may destroy.
The term ‘Vilohita’ has two meanings- of white complexion and of red complexion. As Parameswara is described to be of white complexion at some times and red at other times, both meanings apply here. As sin would lead to many miseries like poverty, disease etc., it is prayed that Parameswara should destroy the sins with his weapons.
Rishi of this mantra is Pulastya; Chandas is Trishtup; Devata is Sambhu.
“प्रसन्नवदनं शान्तं चरितोद्वाहमण्डनम् ।
अम्बया सहितं ध्यायेत्सुरसङ्घैरभिष्टुतम् ॥“
“One should meditate on Sri Parameswara, who has jubilant face, presenting the appearance of celebrating marriage, worshipped by hordes of Devas and of peaceful form.”
Benefits of chant of this mantra are stated to be unity among people, victory over enemies, relief from fear etc.
सहस्राणि सहस्रधा बाहुवोस्तव हेतयः ।
तासामीशानो भगवः पराचीना मुखाकृधि ॥
भगव:- Bhagavan! तव- Your, बाहुवोः- in both hands, सहस्राणि- thousands of, हेतयः- weapons, सहस्रधा- are in many shapes. ईशानः- All-powerful you, तासां- of those weapons, मुखा- ends, पराचीना- not facing us, but turned away from us, कृधि- please do.
There are thousands of weapons in Parameswara’s hands. Each weapon has many characteristics. To indicate this, two terms ‘Sahasrani’ and ‘Sahasradha’ have been used. It is prayed that all those weapons be made to face away from us.
Rishi of this mantra is Narada; Devata is Sri Rudra; Chandas is Anushtup.
“सर्वपापहरं देवं सर्वाभरणभूषितम् ।
सर्वायुधधरं ध्यायेत्सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम् ॥“
“One should meditate on the Deva, the Lord of all worlds, the destroyer of all sins, decorated with all ornaments, holding all weapons.”
Troubles arising unexpectedly with no obvious cause will go away by chanting this mantra.
Translated by: P R Kannan, Navi Mumbai from Commentary in Tamil by
Sri R. MUTHUKRISHNA SASTRI,
Former Editor, Hitabhashini,