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Essence Of
Dharma Sindhu
22    AHNIKAACHARA PRAKARANA

Brahma muhurtey utthaaya Shri Vishnum Smrutwaa Gajendra mokshaadi pathitwaa Ishta Devataadi Smaret/ Samudra vasaney Devi Parvatastana manditey/ Vishnu Patni Namastubhyam Paada sparshyam kshamasva mey, Iti Bhumim Praarthya Gavaadi Mangalaani Pashyet/ ( One should rise from bed at Brahma Muhutra, remember Shri Vishnu by uttering Gajendraadi Stanzas and pray to Vishnu and Vishnu Patni Bhu Devi whose Vastra is Samudra and her chest like mountains.  I touch your feet Devi! Having said thus one should vision Mangalika Swarupas like Cows.) Not rising from bed at Brahma muhurta is stated to be a sin: Braahmey Muhurtey yaa Nidraasaa Punya Kshaya Kaarini, Taam karti Dwijey mohaat paada krucchrena Shudryati/ ( Not waking up from sleep at Brahma Muhurtha would be an abrasion of Punya and not touching the Bhu Devi’s feet would lead to lowering). Vishnu Purana defined Brahma Muhurta: Raatreh paschima yaamasya Muhurto yastruti-yakaha, Sa Brahmaa iti Vigneyo vihitah sa pabhodaney/ Pancha pancha Ushah kaalah Saptapancha -arunodayah, Ashta Pancha bhavet praatastatah Suryodayah smrutah/ Considering a Muhurta or two ghadiyas or 48 minutes approx. Brahma Muhurta is from 4.08 am to 4.56 am assuming Ushodaya or Sunrise at 5.44 am. Incidentally Amrita Kaala or Jeeva Kaala is stated to be from 2 am to 2.48 am most ideal for Maha Yogis. First view of a person on opening his eyes is at his right palm saying : Karaagre vasatey Lakshmih Kara madhye Sarasvati, Kara muley sthito Brahma Prabhaatey kara darshanam/ After viewing Lakshmi on top of the palm fingers, Sarasvati in the middle of the palm and Brahma at the bottom of the palm, the person concerned picks up a grass root, proceeds to the Shouchaalaya wearing the Yagnopaveeta around his neck covering his nose around the ear from the rear side to complete the ablutions which should never be done on the road side, water bodies or their banks, inside or around temples nor facing Surya, or cows.


After Danta dhaavana, the Snaana in a river or waterbody includes a Sankalpa: Mama kaayikavaachika maanasika dosha nirasana purvakam Sarvakarma sushuddhi sidhyartham paatahsnaanam karishye/ (With a view to uproot my physical, vocal and mental borne shortcomings and to achieve cleanliness in all my actions in the day ahead, I shall perform my morning bath). On cleaning the body parts, one should do Aachamana  ie sipping  water three times facing east or north but not west or south , leaving out the right thumb and the forefinger as the other three fingers are bent while reciting the Marjana Mantraas of  Apohishthaa mayo bhuvah taanaurjey tathaatana, Maheranaaya chakshasey yo vah shivatamorasah/ Tasya bhajaayatehanah Usiteerava Maatarah, Tasma aranga maamavah Yasyakshayaaya jinvatah/ Aapojanayata cha nah  Om Bhurbhuvaassuvah/ [ Note the meaning of this Mantra in the Sandhyopaasana Title ahead] 


Then saying Imam mey Gangey perform ‘Jalaalodana’ or swimming  and Aghamarshana with the Mantraas : Rutamcha Satyam cha abheedaat tapasodhya jaayata,tato Raatrasya Jaayataa tatassamudro Arnavah/ Samudraarnava vaadadhi Samvatsro Ajaayata, Ahoraatraani vidadhadviswasya mishato vashi/ Suryaa chandramasou Dhaataa yathaa purvamakalpayat Divam cha Prithiveem chaantariksha mathoswaha/. This would be followed by the recital of Paapa Vimochana Mantra viz. Drupaadi vamunchatu  Drupaadi venmu- chaanah, swinnasnaatvi malaadiva putam  pavitreneyvaajyam Aapahsshuddhantu mainaasah / (May Paramatma cleanse up my ignorance and demolish my inexcusable sins just as a person is freed from a punishment rock or  is profusely sweating and  gets sanitised by His grace) as also perform Triraachamana and  Tarpana:


Tarpana is done with ‘Savyopaveeta’ first to Brahma and other Devatas, then with Upaveeta as a maala / garland around the neck to Dwaipayana and other Rishis and at the end with ‘Apasavyopa -veeta’ to  Somah Pitruman, Yamogiriswaan, Agnishvaattaadi Pitaras.  Pursuant to the snaanaadi at a river or water body, the Brahmana takes Punah Snaana at his house with hot water if need be reciting the Mantraas viz. Shanno Devi, Aapah punantu, Drupadaadiva, Rutamcha and Apohishtha/  Griha snaanas might not repeat the Sankalpa-Aachamana-Aghamarshana-Tarpanas once again.

Snaanaantara Vastra dharana: After removing the wet cloth with which the Snaanaas are done, a dry

and white Vastra and Uttareeya are worn.  Do not carry the left over wet vastra on one’s shoulders but his dress code is stateted to be incomplete without ‘Uttareeya’ and Underwear and no Brahmana could perform Shrouta and Smarta Karmas without these.


Snaana Vidhis: While Praatah-Maadhyaahnika-Saayam Kaala Snaanas are of Nitya or regular nature, quite a few naimittika snaanaas are prescribed such as the Sparsha Snaanaas by touching Chandalas, Sutakaas or after deaths, Prasuti after births, Rajaswalas, Chitaa Kashthas or burnt wood, dead bodies, or just born babies or touch of shadows. Chandalaadi Sparsha requires snaanas by ripple effect ie by way of transfer from person to person. Marana-Janma-Shraaddha-Janmadina-Asprushyataas require cold water Snanaas. In the Nitya Snaana there may not be the restriction of having to perform Tarpana but taking meals after Nitya Snaana certainly calls for Upavasa Vidhi. Grahnas and Sankrantis involve that bhojana without Naimittika Snaanaas would call for eight thousand Gayatri Japa. Even a mere touch of a dog, crow or chandala would require Snaana and without it a meal would entail Upavasa for three nights. In addition to the Nitya Naimittika Snaanas, there is a need for ‘Kamya Snaanas’ or those Snaanas readying for  Karyas in the observance of  Amavasya, Vyatipaata, Ratha Saptami, Kartika-Maagha Snaanaas and so on. Further, there are ‘Gouna Snaanaas’such as the following: Mantra Snaana is in the context of reciting the Mantras like ‘Apohishtha’; Gaayatra Snaana is on account of Prokshana    after Dasha Gayatri Japa; Agneya Snaana is smearing Bhasma from Homa Karyaas all over one’s body ; Kapila Snaana is to perform ‘marjana’ all over one’s body with a wet piece of cloth’; Vishnu Charana Jala Snaana and  Guru Paada Jala Snaana are self-explanatory. Incidentally, all these and such Gouna Snaanaas do bestow Shuddhi or purification but Shaddha Snaanaas do not yield the same kind of Shuddhi. Tilaka Vidhi:  It is desirable to smear the Pratahkaala Bhu- Mrittika , Bhasma from Agni Homas, Gopi chandana, Tulasi Mula Sindhu or burnt Tulasi Root’s powder, Mrittika of Samudra-Bhagirathi Tata, etc.on one’s forehead, belly, chest, neck, right hand and ear by left hand, and vise-versa, back and back-bump while taking the name of Keshva on Shukla Paksha , Sankarshana in Krishna Paksha and Vaasudeva on the forehead. Bhasma Tripundra: Those Pavitaatma Maanavas who apply Tripundra Bhasma in the context of Shraaddhas, Yagnaas, Japaas, Homaas, Vaishwa Devaas, or Deva Pujaas are stated to the conquerers of Mrityu.


Sandhyopaasana


Uttama Taarakopetaa madhyamaa Lupta Taarakaa, Adhamaa Surya sahitaa Praatah Sandhyaa Tridhaamata/ Uttamaa Surya sahitaa madhyamaa lupta Bhaskaraa, Adhamaa Taarakopetaa Sayam Sandhyaa Tridhaamataa/ (Praah-sandhya is best performed in the presence of Stars on the Sky; when Stars are invisible then the time of Sandhya is of medium type but when Suryodaya has taken place then the Sandhyopaasna is of minimal value. Conversely, the Saayam Sandhya is best done while Surya is still present, after Sunset the Sandhya is of medium worth but when Stars appear on the Sky the Sandhya worship is of poor quality.) Maadhyaahnika Sandhya is scheduled at half prahara of the Sayamkaala Samaya. The Tri Sandhyas be idally performed on the banks of Rivers or Water Flows but since there are obvious limitations of kindling Agni on the water flow banks, the Gruhaagnis are more suited to one’s own houses.


Sandhyaa Prayoga: Holding two pieces of Kusha grass by both the palms or one ‘Pavitra’or one double Kushas stringed together, one should perform Aachamana and Pranaayaama (Breathing exercise by way of ‘Puraka’ or inhalation of fresh air into lungs, ‘Kumbhaka’ or retention of air  making way for the fresh air by contraction of muscles and ‘Rechaka’ or exhalation or pushing out impurities of air).Then : Pranavasya Parabrahma Rishih Paramatma Devata Devi Gayatri Chandaha, Saptaanaam Vyaahruteenaam Vishwaamitra Jamadagni Bharadwaaja Goutamaatri Vasishtha Kashyapaa rishayah/ Agni Vaayavyaaditya Brihaspati Varunendra Vishwey Devaa Devataah, Gayatrushnik anushthup brihati Pankti Trishthup Jagati Chhandaamsi/ Gaayatrya Vishwaamitra Rishih  Savitaa devatyaa Gayatri Chhandah, Gayatri shirasah Prajaapati Rishih Brahmaagni Vaayavvaadityaa Devataah Yajushcchandah Praanaayaamey Viniyogah/ (In this Praanaayaama, the following viniyogaas be taken into account viz. Pranava as Parabrahma Rishi, Paramatma as Devata, Devi Gayatri as Chhandas, Seven Vyahritis or ramifications viz.Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaaja, Goutama, Atri, Vasishtha and Kashyapa; Devataas viz. Agni, Vayu, Surya, Brihaspati, Varuna, Indra and Vishwa Devaas; Gayatri, Ushnika, Anushthup, Brihati, Pankti, Trishthup and Jagati as the  Chhando Prakaraas or variations-incidentally the Names of Surya Deva’s Saptaashvaas; Vishvamitra as the Rishi of Gayatri; Surya as Devata; Gayatri as Chhanda; Prajapati as the Rishi of Gayatri’s Head; Brahma-Agni-Vayu and Surya as Devataas besides Yajuh Chhanda.). Now, Praanayaama be done by closing nose with all the fingers or only the tarjani and middle fingers, open the right nostril to inhale forcefully and hold by reciting Om Bhuh, Om Bhuvah, Om Swaha, Om Mahaha, Om Janah, Om Tapah, Om Satyam and exhale slowly with the same Mantra, repeat the exercise thrice and make the Sankalpa: Mamopaattah durithakshaya dwaaraa Shri Parameshwara preetyartham Pratasshandhyaa -mupaasishye/  Having thus made the resolve, initiate the recitation of the Three-Rucha  Marjana Mantra of Aapoishthaa mayobhuvaha-----/ above whose Rishi was Ambarisha, Sindhu Dwipa, Jala Devata and Gayatri as Chhanda. Then perform Marjana with the Kusha in hand on the head and sprinkle water from the ‘Bhusthita Paatra’taken in left hand all around in different directions. (The broad meaning of Apohishtha Mantra: ‘Hey Waters of auspiciousness, the immense source of happiness and contentment! Do shower your pure and abunant love on us and enhance our faculties to acquire more and more knowledge; indeed the juicy source of your uniqueness and omniscience is such that we humans get readily attracted to you and worship you. Do enable us to secure fulfillment in our lives and channelise our energies to obtain excellent progeny among other desires).


Following the Apohishtha Mantras, then there would be a Prayer meant to Surya Deva: the Suryascha Mantra’s Rishi is Yagnavalkya, Surya Deva is Manyupati, Raatri is Devata, Prakriti is Chhanda and Mantraachamana is the Viniyoga; the Text of the Mantra is: Om Suryascha Maamanyuscha Manyupatayascha Manyukrutebhyah Paapebhyo Rakshantaam/ Yadraatrya Paapamakarsham Manasaa Vaachaa Hastaabhyaam, Padbhyaamudarena shishnaa/ Raatrimsta -davalumpatu Yatkincha duritam mayi idamaham maamamrutayonou Surye Jyotishi juhomi Saahaa/Iti jalam pibet/  ( May Surya Paramatma save me from my great sins perpetrated out of my reckless anger, accentuated further by my Angry Gods. Whatever sins that were peformed by me in the previous nights on account of my wreckless thoughts, deeds as done by my own hands, by my stomach or sishna or further provoked by the Raatri’s Abhimaana Devatas be demolished through your mercy and forgiveness! May my ego and  arrogance be uprooted and replaced with divine thoughts and Suryaatmaka jyoti or Sun oriented effulgence so that the Homa Karya that I propose performing would burn off my sins into heaps of ashes!; Having expressed extreme remorse, the Kartha would then drink water as though to assuage the heat generated in his heart.)


Pursuant to ‘Mantraachamana’ is Arghya Daana: Aachamya/ Gayatyraa  Vishwamitrah  Savitaa Gayatri Shri Surya Arghya daanye Viniyogaha/ Pranavyaahriti purvaya Gayatryaa tishthan Suryonmukhah Jalaanjali trih kshipet/ Kaalaatikramey Praayaschittartham chaturtham, Asaavaadityo Brahmeti pradakshinam bhraman jalam sanchet, Arghyaanjalou tarjanyangashtha yogo na kaaryah/ Idamarghya daanam  Pradhaanamityekey/  After Aachamana, Arghya Vniyoga be done to Gayatri, with Vishmamitra as Rishi, Savita as Devata, and Gayatri as Chhanda. This Arghya is forwarded to Surya. One should stand up in reverence looking at Surya Deva and leave down on Earth three Anjali / Palm-fulls of Arghya and one extra Anjali as Prayaschitta owing to delay of the Arghya daana.The Jala Sanchayana as stated is performed while taking three ‘Atma Pradakshinaas’ reciting the Mantra Asaavaatityo Brahma-Brahmai Vaahanasmi but care be taken not to use the Tarjani and Angushtha fingers in the process.


Gayatri Japa- Anga Nyasa: Praanaayaamam krutwaa Gayatrya Vishwaamitrah Savitaa Gayatri Japey viniyogaha/ Tatsavitur Hridayaaya namah, Varenyam Shirasey swaaha, Bhargo Devasya Shikhaayai Vashat, Dheemati Kavachaaya hum, Dhiyo yono Netratrayaaya voushat, Prachodayaat Astraaya phut-Iti Shadanga nyaasah/ ( After Praanaayaama, Shadanga Nyasa is as follows: The Gayatri Mantra’s Rishi is Vishwamitra, Devata is Savita, and Gayatri is Chhanda; the Nyasa is done with ‘Tat Savitu’as Hridaya, Varenya Shirasey Swaaha as the Karta’s head, Bhargo Devasya Shikhaayaai vashat as Shikha or tuft, Dheemahi kavachaaya hum as both hands and shoulders, Yo no netraaya voushat as the three eyes, Prachodayaat Astraaya phat as Ashta Mudra circling the upper body with the right palm and hitting the left palm with a sound of thud. This is the Anga Nyaasa krama which is optional to perform as it is not a Vedic requirement). Likewise, Akshara Nyasa, Pada Nyasa, Shapa Vimochana Vidhi are not Vedic necessities.


Gayatri Dhyaana: Aagaccha Varadey Devi japey mey sannidhou bhava, Gaayantam traayasey yasmaad Gayatri twam tatah smirita/ Iti taamaahvaa- Yo Devah Savitaasmaakam dhiyo Dharmaadi gocharey, Prerayettasya tadbhargah tadvarenyaupaasmahey/ ( Devi! You are the one to fulfill my desires; please  be present before me as I meditate to you; you provide Raksha to me and hence called Gayatri. It is in this fashion, Gayatri is invoked who facilitates me to respectfully worship Surya Deva and in turn the latter’s unique splendour inspires my mental frame to lend itself  towards Dharma.) Thus pondering over the import and significance of Gayatri Mantra, the Katra would stand still before Surya Deva and as though being desirous of visioning the Surya Mandala should perform the Pranava Mantra Vyahritis some hundred and eight times or twenty eight times or atleast ten times. Once the Japa is thus completed, the Karta would ensure that during the Anaadhyaa period he would perform Gayatri Japa aleast twenty eight nimes, ten times at PradoshaKaala, and so on. After Uttara Nyasa of the Sandhya Vandana , one should perform Om Jaata Vedasey sumanaamava Somamaraatiyato nidahaati Vedah, Sa nah parishadati Durgaani Vishwaa naameva Sindhum duritaadyagnih/ Taa-magni Varnaam Tapasaa Jwalanteem, Vairochaneem Karma phaleshu jushtaam, Durgaam Deveegum sharanamaham prapadye sutara sitarasey namah/ Agney twam paarayaa navyo Asmaan Swastibhiti Durgaani Vishwaa, Bhuscha Prithvi bahulaa na Urvee bhavaa lokaayantanayaashamyoh/ Vishwaani no Durgahaa Jaatavedassindhum na Naavaa duritaatiparshi, Agney Atrivan manasaa gruhaano-Smaakam bodhya vitaa tanunaam, Prutanaajitagum sahamaana mugravognigum humeva da maadhrudaathaat/Sanah parshadati Durgaani Vishwaa KshaamaddevoAti duritaatyagnih, Prat-noshi ka meedyo Advareshu sanaaccha hotaa navyascha sathsi-swaam chaagney tanuvam pipraya swasmabhyam cha Soubhaga maayajaswa/ Gobhirjushta mayujo nishikltam tavendra Vishno ranu-sancharema, Naakasyua prishtha mabhisamvasaano Vaishnaveem loka iha maadayantaam/  


Surya-Varuna Upasthaana: There is a school of thought that this Jatavedasey Mantra should be the Suryopasthaana Mantra. After this ‘Jatavedasey’ then  Taccham yo; Om Namo Brahmaney etc. be recited. This is how Pratah Kaala and Saayam Kaala Suryopasthaana and Varunopasthaana be executed; with the following Mantras are relevant respectively ;  the Suryopasthaana Mantra reads as follows: Mitrasyacharshani dhruytasshravo Devasya saanasim, Satyam Chitra shravastamam/ Mitro janaan yaatayati Prajaanan Mitrodaadhaara Prithivi mutadyaam, Mitrah krishti ranibhishaabhi chasteyh Satyaayahavyam Ghritavadvidhema/Prasa Mitra varto Astu prayaswaan yasta Aditya sikshati Vratena , Na hanyateey na jeeyatey tvoto nainamagumho asnyotyanti to na dooraat/ ( May I meditate Surya Deva whose magnificence is unparalleled and eternal due to which reason the entire Universe gets attracted to Him as he is omniscient and omnipresent and holds the Earth and Heaven together always protecting and sustaining all of us. Whosoever follows Dharma and worships Surya Deva is safeguarded by Him, never allowed to suffer from diseases , lives for full hundred years and never tormented by failures and sins.)  Varunopas-thaana Mantra states: Imam mey Varuna shrudhi havamadhyaacha mridaya, Twaa manassu –raachakey / Tatwaayaami Brahmanaa vandamaanasta daasaastey yajamaano havirbhih, Aheda maano Varuneyha bodhyuru sagumsamaa na Aayuh pramoshih/ Yatchiddi tey visho yatthaa pradeva  Varuna Vratam Minimasidyavidyavi/ Yatkinchedam Varuna Daivyejanebhi droham Manushyaas –charaamasi, Achitteeyattava Dharmaayu yopi mamaanastasmaa denaso Devaririshah/ Kitavaaso –yadri ripuna deeviyadvaaghaasatyamutayanna vidma, Sarvaataavishya sthithireva Devataa tey syaama Varuna priyaasah/ (Varuna Deva! Please consider my sincere supplication and provide me protection as I seek shelter Veda  Mantras. Kindly do not ignore my request to extend my life span. For sure, I might have omitted my daily prayers out of ignorance or negligence but do  pardon my blemishes and hearafter I should indeed be careful!)


Following Surya or Varunopa-sthaanaas as above, the ‘Sandhyopaasana Kartha’ should then proceed with the Digdevata Namaskaaraas: Om Praachai Dishey Namah Indraaya namah; Aagneyai dishey Agnaye namah; [Dakshinaayai Dishaye yaascha-Yamaayai namah;Pradeeschyai-Varuna Deva; Udeechyai-Kubera;Urdhvaayai—Adhovaayai-Avantaraayai-Agneyayai, Nirruti, Vayavya, Ishanya] Sandhyaayai namah, Gayatrai namah, Savitrai namah, Sarasvatyia namah, Sarvaabhyo Devobhyo namah/ After the ‘Digdevataa Vandanaas’ the Sandhyaa Vandana Karta should proceed further to recite: Uttamey shikharey jaatey Bhumyaam Parvata murthani, Brahmanairabhyanujnaataa gaccha Devi Yathaa Sukham/ (Devi Gayatri! You are the resident of the Lofty and the Topmost Shikhiraas and Mountains and at the same time Bhumi too; as the entire Brahmana community worship you whole-heartedly you bestow happiness and contentment to them; with this great hope, faith and determination, may I perform Visarjana with the Mantra: Bhadranno  api vaatayamanah; He then takes three Padakshinaas symbolic of Satyaloka, Pataala loka and upto Lokaaloka Parvataas and having prostrated to Bhu Devi does the final Aachamanaas twice over!  


Taittiriya Version of Sandhya Vandana:  Gayatri Dhyana commences with: Aayaatu Varadaa Devi Aksharam Brahma Sammitam, Gayatri Chhandasaam Maataridam Brahma jushaswamey/ Sarva Varnam Maha Devi Sandhyaa Vidye Sarasvati, Ajarey Amarey Devi Sarva Deva Namostutey/  Then the Aavahanaas as follows: Ojosi Sahosi Balamasi Bhraajosi Devaanaam Dhaamanaamaasi Vishwamasi Vishvaayuh Sarvamasi Sarvaayuh Abhi -bhurom/  Gayatrimaavaahayaami Savitri -maavaahayaami Sarasvati -maavaahayaami, Chhanda Rishinaavaahayami,  Shriyamaavaahayaami, Hriyamaavaahayaami/


The Aavahanas are followed with Maarjanas: Aapovaamidagsarvam Vishwaa bhutaanaapyah Praanava- apah pashava  Aaponnama apomrita maapassamraadaapo viraadaapa-sswaraadaapas-Chandaag –ssyaapo jyoteegshyaapo yajug shaapassatya maapa Sarvaa Devataa Aapo bhurbhuvassuvaraapa Om/ On performing ‘Jalaabhi- -mantrana’, there should be ‘Mantraachaamana’ with the Suryascha Manyuscha Manyupatayascha etc. Then the Ruk Pathana of the following is taken up: Dadhikraavunno Akaarsham jishnorashvasya vaajinah, Surabhino mukhaakaratprana Aaayugum shitaarishat/ ( Paramatma is ever victorious, Omni Present and the Unique Protector; I pray to him most earnestly to purify our thoughts and actions). Hiranya varnaasschayah Paavakaayaa Sujaatah Kashyapoyaaswindrah, Agnim yaa garbham dadhirey Virupaastaana Aapassagyussyonaabhavantu/ (These Sanctified waters possess golden colour, pure and tranparent; the birth places of Kashyapa Muni and Devendra; these are also the sustainers of the Garbha of Agni; these assume the Swarupa of the Universe itself. May these hallowed waters destroy our sorrows and promote our happiness!) Yaasaagum Raajaa Varunoyaati Madhye Satyaanrutey Apavasyan Janaanaam, Madhuschuta-ssuchayoyaah Paavakaastaana Aassagyusyo naa bhavantu/ (The Sacred Waters whose Adhipati is Varuna Deva is always watched by Yama Dharma Raja as the latter is present in  them to assess the Paapa-Punyas that human beings perform and bless them by purifying  and providing nourishment). Yaasaam Devaadi vikrunvanti bhashayaa Antarikshey bahudhaa bhavanti, Yaah Payasondanti Shukraastaana Aapassyaggusyo naa bhavantu/ (May our tribulations get demolished and happy tidings ushered in by the Sacred waters whose staple food is for Pitru Devatas in the Heaven and whose basic source of food is for human beings too by way of rains from the Skies). Shivey namaa chakshushaapashya yaatanuopasprsha tatwamchamey, Sarvaagum rapsushado huvevomayivarcho balamojoniddhatta/  (May the Sacred waters vision us and shower propitiousness by touching and passing Brahma Teja, physical endurance, enthusiasm and stability of mind!). Barring Aavahana and Maarjaana, the Procedure of Arghya daana, Gayatri Japa and the rest of the Procedure is as above as in the case of Taittireeyaas too. At the end of Gayatri Japa, the Upasthana Vidhi is also as in the earlier version of the six Mantras viz. Om Mitrasya charshani-Om Mitro janaan-Om Prasamitra-Om Yatkinchitey-Om Kitavaaso yadri. Digdeva Vandana is followed by Gangaadi Punya Nadi Vandana is supplemented by: Namo Ganga Yamunaayormaddheyye Vasantiteyme prasannatmaanaschiranjeevi tam Vardhayanti nam,o Gangaa-Yamuna yormaddhya -scha Namah/( My venerations to Ganga and Yamuna Rivers; may those Punyaatmaas like Maharshis residing in the River Surroundings bestow long life and contentment  to us.) At the end of the Upasana, the Karta would announce his Naama-Gotra-Pravaras and seek pardons to him for the insufficiencies in the Sandhya Vandana procedure while prostrating on Bhumi.


Katyaayana Version of Sandhya Vandana: In the Katyaayana Procedure, one performs Aachamana and initiates the worship with introductory prayers like Bhuh punaatu, Bhuvah punaatu, Swah unaatu, Bhurbhuvaswah punaatu /followed by Apavitrah Pavitrovaa Sarvaavasthaangato piva  Yassmaret Pundarikaaksham sa Baahyaantarassuchih/ and be seated with Vishnu Smarana. Aachamana again and Pranayama, ‘Mamopaatta------Sankalpa’ and Gayatri’s Aavahana: Gayatrim Tryaksharaam Balaam Saaksha Sutra kamandalum, Rakta Vastraam Chaturvaktraam Hamsa vaahana samsthitaam/ Brahmaaneem Brahma Daivatyaam Brahma loka Nivaasinim, Aavaahayaamyaham Devimaayantim Surya Mandalaat/ Aagaccha varadey Devi Tryaksharey Brahma vaadini, Gayatri chhandasaam Maata Brahma yoney Namostutey/ ( My sincere Invocations to You  Devi! the Three-Lettered Ga-Ya-Tri, Aksha Sutrini, Kamandala Yukta, Rakta Vastra Dhaarini, Chaturmukhi, Hamasa Vaahini, Brahma Deva Sahita, Brahma loka Nivasini, Surya Mandala Sthita, Bramani Gayatri!My Aavahana to you Brahma Vaadini,Veda Maata, Brahma yoni, Varadaayani, Tryakshara Gayatri Devi, my prayers to you Devi!). After Aavahana, Maarjana and Aghamarshana-or two Marjanas- are performed with the three Ruchaas of  ‘Apohishtha’, and ‘Suryascha’, and leave water on Earth from the left side with the two Mantras viz. Om Sumitrayaana  and Durmitrayaa  as the Rishi of these is Prajapati, Jala is Devata, Yajuh is Chhanda. The Mantra states: Om Sumitrayaana Aapa Auoshadhayah Santu ---Durmantraayastasmai Santu or Yosmaandweshti yam cha vayam dishma/ On completion of this, recite theThree Ruchaas viz  Rutam cha etc. or Drupadaadi Rucha Traya  for performing Aghamarshana.  Both in the Praatah and Saayam Sandhyas three Arghyas are required to be offered but in Madhyaahnika Sandhya one Arghya is offered. Now about Upastthaana. Udhvayamudutyamiti dwayoh Praskanva Rishih Suryonunushthup Gayatrou, Chhandasi; Chitram Devaanaam, Angirasa Kutsah, Suryah Trishthup Chhandah, tatchakshurtdhvangaadharvanah Suryahpura Ushnik, Upasthaaney/ (To both the Udvayam and Udyutyam the respective Mantras respectively are as follows: Praskanva is Rishi-Surya is Devata-Anushthup as Gayatri Chhanda and Chitram as Devaanaas; Angirasa, Kutsa as Rishis-Surya as Devataa-Trishtup as Chhanda. Besides  to Tatchakshu Mantra, Dadhyaarnava is Rishi, Surya is Devata, Pura Ushnik is Chhanda.Then four Mantras are recited in a row viz. Om Udvayam Tamasah, Om Udyutyam Jaatah, Om Chitram Devaanaam and Om Tad- chakshu Deva hitam along with the Rishis-Devatas and Chhandasaas; while doing so, the Karta raises his hands above the shoulders as a mark of veneration and also announcing one’s own ‘Shaakha’ etc. The Recitals would follow Paranayama and Anga-Mudra Nyaasaas and Tarpanaas. Moola Mantra should be recited later viz.  Om Tejosi Shukramasi Mritamasi Dhaamanaamaasi Priyam Devaanaa manaadhrushtham Deva yajanamasi Parojasa iti/ Vimalah Paramaatmaanushthup Gayatrupasthaa—Om Gayatrasyekapadi Dwipadi Tripadi Chatushpadyasi na hi padyasy Namastey Tureeyaaya Darshataaya Padaaya arorajaseysaavadom, Tato Gayatri Japaantah puravat/To this Moola Mantra Parameshthi is Rishi, Praja-Pati is Devata and Yajur Veda is Chhanda. To Gayar -tekapadi Mantra, the Rishi is Vimala, Paramatma is the Devata and Anushthupis Chhanda. All  these Mantras are significant in the context of Gayatri Upasthaana. Later on Gayatri Japa be done as stated in the earlier sections. In fact, if a person has the ability to perform  more, he might as well execute ‘Vibhranda’ including Anuvaaka, Purusha Sukta, Shiva Sankalpa and Mandala Brahmana. Any how, the Sandhya Vandana Prakriya is accomplished after Disha Vandana, and Visarjana before reciting Uttamey Shikharey and Devaagaatu Vidogaatu Mantras/ Upasangraha of the Sandhya Puja ends up after ‘Bhu Pradakshina’ and ‘Saanga Pranaama’. This is the Version of ‘Kaatyayana Sandhya’.


Sandhya Phala: Those who perform Sandhyopaasana would  no doubt thrash heaps of sins done currentlyor on the previous births and pave way to Brahma Loka, but those who neglect this fundamental duty would disqualify to reap fruits of various other tasks of propitiousness like Vratas, Tirtha Yatras and so on. In case the prescribed timings of the Tri Sandhyas are over-crossed then the Prayaschittais to offer excess Arghya Pradaanaas by way of extending the day’s Sandhya till the evening. If no Sandhya were observed in a full day, then the Prayaschitta is to perform Upavasaas  in addition to Gayarti Japa one  thousand and eight times minmum. In the case of inability to do so then extra number of Gayatri Japa be performed in  instalments in addition to compensating Upavasaas. Consistent failure of the Upasana would demand  Kruccha Vrataas.



VIVAHA PRAKARANA

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