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"Pratyaksa" is direct perception; "anumana" is inference; "upamana" is inference by analogy or comparison; and "sabda" is the pronouncement of a reliable authority like the Vedas.
Literally, the meaning of a word or an object.
It is also understood as "generality " as opposed in the "particularity" of "visesa".
The idea is that the jivatman is not separate from the Paramatman.
"Arthapatti " is (intuitive)presumption, "anupalabdhi " is non-perception.
Ya nisa sarva-bhutanam tasyam jagarti samyami
Yasyam jagrati bhutani sa nisa pasyato muneh
- Bhagavadgita 2. 69.
"Kanada" means "not seen " in Tamil.
In Tamil, "kandu" means after having seen.
Caitanya Mahaprabhu (Visvambhara Misra), a great figure of Bengali Vaisnavism, lived between 1485 and 1533.
For a general background, please see here