Essence Of
Varaha Purana


5    Rituals of Shraddha (Amavasya Tarpana Mantra included)
Once Maharshi Markandeya visited Sage Gomukh in Naimsharanya and discussed matters related to Pitras and Rituals for venerating the deceased souls. First about the Pitras: While Lord Narayana is the Adi Guru and created Brahma, the latter created Sapta Rishis or Seven Sages (Brahma Manasa Puthras) and instructed them to worship him but instead they worshipped themselves and disobeyed Brahma’s oders. They were cursed that the knowledge acquired by them be forgotten. Eventually, the Seven Sages known as ‘Vimaniks’ procreated a number of sons. Pursuant to the death of the Seven Sages, the progeny performed Shraddhas by way of ‘Pindadaan’mantras to the deceased and the latter attained Swarga Loka. Of the Sapta Rishis, four of them such as Marichi were entitled to ‘Amrit’.The remaining three were not; some were sent to the Santanak Loka or Bhaswar Loka residents of which were ‘Amurthis’ or without Bodies ie. Chinmatra or Abhouthik category. Sages Sanatana, Kashyap, Vasu and so on belong to this classification. Some Pitras belong to another category viz. ‘Vairaj’, named after Prajapati Viraj and so on. [Sapta Rishis are stated to vary as per Manvantaras: The First Manvantara Group is mentioned as Marichi, Atri, Angirasa, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulasthya and Vasistha; in the Current Seventh Vaivasvata Manvantara, the Group is stated as Kashyapa, Atri, Vasishtha, Viswamitra, Gautami, Jamadagni and Bharadwaja]
Appropriate days for performing Kamya Shraddha include: the days when Uttarayan or Dakshinayan commence, during Solar/Lunar eclipses, if apprehended or experienced by evil influences of specific planet or constellation, when Sun changes its course from zodiac to another and so on. Days falling with Stars Anuradha, Visakha and Swati especially coinciding with Amavasya are considered auspicious.Similarly Shraddhas on Amavasya days coinciding with Stars of Pushya or Punarvasi are extremely auspicious to the ancestors and the Karthas (those who perform the Ceremonies). The third day of the bright half of Vaisakha month, the Ninth day of the bright half of Kartik, the thirteenth day of the dark half of Bhadrapad and Amavasya of Magha month are also commended for performing Kamya Shraddhas. Tarpana (Libation) to Pitras and Forefathers of three generations atleast constitutes as an essential component of Kamya Shraddha, besides physical and internal cleanliness.The Pitrugan keep expecting anxiously as to when would Rainy Season arrive in Makha Star, or when would Magha month’s Amavasya would come soon to quench the thirst of the departed souls! The Kartha ought to observe distinct mind, affordable charity, ample time and attention, devotion, Shraddha or Patience and dedication to satisfy the tormented souls!

[Amavaasya Tarpana Vidhaanam : Achamya….Punya tithou…preethyatham…Prayukta Punya kaaley Devarshi Pitruunuddhishya Devarshi Pithru Preethyartham Devarshi Pitru Tarpanam karishye (Ithi Samkalpya); Note: Recite ‘Tarpayami’ once at the end of each Mantra; twice or thrice as indicated in each category below; leave spoonful of water each time after saying Tarpayami:Brahmodayo ye Devah thaan Devagumstrapayami-Sarvaan Devaagumstrapayami- Sarvaan Devaganaagum strapayami-Sarvaan Deva patneestharpayami-Sarvaan Deva Putraagumstarpayami-Sarvaan Deva poutragumstarpayami-Bhuur Devaagumstarpayami-Bhuvardevaagumsturpayami-Suvardevaagumstarpayami-Bhurbhuvassuvardevaagum starpayami [ Now wear Yajnopaveetham as a Maala] Atha Krishna dwaipaya naadayo ye Rishaah: Thaan Risheegumstarpayami Tarpayaami (2)-Sarvaan Rishi ganaagumstarpayami Tarpayami (2)-Sarvah Rishi Patneestrapayami tarpayami (2)-Sarvaan Rishigum Putraamstarpayami tarpayami(2)-Sarvaan Risheegum Poutraamstarpayami Tarpayami (2)-Bhur Risheegum starpayami Tharpayami (2)-Bhuvar Risheegum starpayami Tarpayami (2)-Suvar Risheegumstarpayami Tarpayami(2)-Bhurbhuvassuvar Risheegum starpayami Tarpayami (2)-Kaandarshi Tarpanam:-Prajapatim Kaanda Rishim-Starpayami Tarpayami (2)-Somam Kaanda Rishim Tarpayami Tarpayami(2)-Agnim Kaanda Rishim Tarpayami Tharpayami (2) Sarvaan Devaan Kaanda Risheegum Tarpayami Tarpayami (2) Saagumhiteer devata Upanishada Tarpayami Tarpayani (2)-Yaajnikir Devataa Upanishada Tarpayami Tarpayami (2) Vaarunir Devata Upanishada Tarpayami Tarpayami (2)-Havyavaaham Tarpayami Tarpayami (2)-Viswaan Devaan Kandarsheegum Tarpayami Tarpayami (2)-Brahmaanagum Swayam Bhuvam Tarpayami Tarpayami (2)-Vanaspatim Tarpayami Tarpayami (2)
NOW Tarpanam to Pitarah (Note: Yagnopaveetam to be turned left as ‘Praacheenaaveeti)
Somah Pitruman Yamom Girasvanagnisshaatvaagni kavyavaahanaadayo ye thaan
Pitarah Pitruun SwadhanamastarpayamiSwadhanamastarpayami Swadhaanamastarpayami (3)
Punarvisvaan Devan
Kaandarsheegum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Arunaan Kaandarsheegum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Sarvaan Pitruugum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Sarvaan Pitruganaagum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Sarvah Pitru Patnee -Do- -Do- -Do-
Sarvaan Pitru Putraagum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Sarvaan Poutraagum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Bhuh Pitruugum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Bhuvah Pitruugum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Suvah Pitruugum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Bhurbhvassuvah Pitruugum -Do- -Do- -Do-
Anena Devarshi Pitru Tarpanena Bhagavan Sarvaatmakah Sri Parameswarah Preeyataam
Yetat Phalam Sri Parameswara arpanamasthu.
Pitru Tarpanam:
Achamya, Evam ….Preetyartham Pituh Pitruunaam Akshayya Punyalokaphala vaapartham Darsa Prayukta Maha Punya Kaley Thila Tarpanam karishye (Praacheenaa -veeti, Daksinaamukhah Savyam Jaanvaachya or facing South with left knee bent seated). While performing Tarpan Brahmanas recite ‘Sharmaanam’, Ksatriyas say ‘Varmaanam’ and Vysyas say ‘Guptam’).
The seriatim of the departed souls for the purpose of performing Tarpanam is as follows by taking care of those who are alive should not, repeat not, be included in the process as the list is only suggestive; The Tarpana Vidhanam or Procedure is to recite (A) the relationship of the Karta (Performer) to the Concerned Departed Soul, (B) His/Her Gotram, and (C) the Name of the Soul and then perform the Tarpanam three times by saying the Mantram thrice viz. Svadhanamaha Tarpayami.For example:
Pitaram-Haradasa Gothram-Narayana Murti Sharmanaam-Swadhaanamah Tarpayami (The last word to be uttered thrice and simultaneously tarpanam be left thrice as well)
Note: Tila or Sesame / Ginjelley seeds must be mixed with the water to be utilised for Tarpanam)
Pitaram-Father, Pitamaham- Grand Father, Prapitamaham-Great Grand Father, Mataram-Mother, Pitamahim- Father’s mother, Prapitamahim- Father’s Grand Mother, Sapnatimataram- Father’s another wife if applicable; if Karta (Performer) was adopted to another family then to his adopted parents viz. Janaka Pitaram and Janaka Mataram; Matamaham- Mother’s Father, Mathuh Pitamaham- Maternal Grand Father, Mathu Prapithamaham-Mother’s Great Grand Father, Matamahim- Mother’s Mother, Mathuh Pitamahim-Mother’s Grand Mother, Mathuh prapitamahim- Mother’s Great Grand Mother, Atma Patnim-Wife, Sutham- Sons, Bhrataram- Brothers, Pitravyam-Father’s Brothers, Mathulam- Maternal Uncles and their Wives, Duhitaram-Daughters, Bhagineem-Sisters, Dauhitram-Grand Sons, Bhagineyam- Nephews, Pitru Bhagineem- Father’s Sisters, Matru Bhagineem- Mother’s elder/younger Sisters, Jamatharam-Son in laws, Bhavukam- Brothers in laws and their wives, Snushaam-Daughter in law, Swasuram / Swasrum- Wife’s father/ mother, Syalakam-Wife’s brothers and their wives, Guru and Rikthinam- the Main Shop Keeper ( in fact ,wherever not mentioned tarpanam may be done as Sapatneekam or Sabhartreekam as the case may be, if the departed Souls are devoid of wives/husbands. As a round up-Evam Tarpanam kuryat: Echasrutkuley Jaata Aputhro gotrinomrutah, they gruhnanthu maya dattam sutra nishpeedanodakam
(May my Tarpanas be please accepted on behalf of those in our Vamsam, the Sagotras or those who died without sons by way of sqeezing water from my Yajnopaveeth; this Mantra be recited by wearing the Holy Thread as a mala or long necklace and be left in the Tarpana Plate)]

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