NARADA PURANA

Naradapuran

Six Vedangas constitute the means of knowledge to attain Mukti

In the process of ‘Siksha Nirupana’, Maharshi Sanandana explained to Brahmarshi Narada that six     Vedangas constituted the ‘Sadhanas’or the means to accomplish Mukti, viz. Siksha, Kalpa, Vyakarana, Nirukti, Chhandas and Jyotisha. Maha Shuka Muni was a glorious example of ‘Anuchan’ or an outstanding expert in all the Six Vedangas, besides being an epitome of Dharma and an unparalelled ‘Adhyayi’ or a Master of the Four Vedas of Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva.

Siksha: In relation to Siksha, Sage Sanandana emphasised the significance of Swara (notations) in the discipline of Sangeeta (Music). In the Swara Shastra, the Swara of Archika is related to Rig Veda, ‘Gaandhik’ is to ‘Gaadha’ and ‘Saamik’ is to Sama Veda. A ‘Swara’ is according to ‘Ruchas’ (Hymns) and their variations, while in ‘Gathas’or metered rhythemic verses Sama Veda has ‘Vyavadhaanas’ or pauses. The Yagjna stotras, karanas and Mantras are required to be pronounced as per Swaras; otherwise they turn out to be ‘Viruddha Swaras’. In the entire ‘Vangmaya’ Shastra (Vocabulary), pronounciation originates from ‘Vakshasthala’ (chest), ‘Kantha’ (throat) and ‘Mastaka’(head); from the chest emerges the low level sounds normally resorted to morning singing, from the Kantha emerge the medium and very broad variety of sounds and from Mastaka are emanated high pitch sounds and their variations of volume. The Sapta Swaras-Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, and Ni-are ‘Prathama’ (Shadaja), ‘Dwitiya’ (Rishabha), ‘Tritiya’ (Gandhara), ‘Chaturtha’ (Madhyama), ‘Mandra’ (Panchama), ‘Krushtha’ (Dhaivata) and ‘Atiswara’ (Nishadha). Shadaja-Sa- stands for ‘Sagar’ (Sea) with peacock as the representative bird, ‘Muladhara’ (the base of the spine) as the Chakra (body part) and the ruling Deity as Ganapati. Rishabha   Re-means bull representing the bird Skylark, ‘Swadhishtana’or genital as the Chakra and the ruling Deity is Agni. Gandhara Swara ‘Ga’means Gagan or Sky with goat as the representative animal, ‘Manipura’ (solar plexus/ naval) as the Chakra and Rudra is the concerned Deity. Madhyama-Ma-means the Middle, represented by the bird dove, Anahata (heart) being the relevant body part and Vishnu as the Ruler concerned. Panchama-Pa-means the fifth, represented by nightingale and ‘Vishuddha’ (throat) as the relevant body part and the Ruling Deity is Sage Narada. The Swara titled Dhaivata-Dha- means Dharti or Earth, the representative animal being horse, the relevant Chakra being ‘Aaajna’ or the third eye and the Ruler being Sada Shiva. The Seventh Swara viz. Nishada-Ni- meaning Hunter and standing for the animal Elephant, has ‘Sahasrara’ (the crown of the head) as the body part, the Ruler being Surya as the Deity. Besides the Swaras, Shadaja, Madhyama and Gandhara are known as three ‘Graamaas’ (gamut or scale in music). Those who render ‘Saama Gana’ approve twenty graamas in Madhyama Swara, fourteen in Shadaja and fifteen in Gandhara. Also there are seven Murchanas (Intonations / Modulations) meant for Devatas viz. Nandi, Vishaala, Sumukhi, Chitra, Chitravati, Sukha and Bala; and seven for Pitaras viz. Aapyaayani, Vishwabhruta, Chandra, Hema, Kapardini, Maitri and Baarhati. For Rishis too there are seven Murchanas viz. Uttara Mandra in Shadaja Swara, Abhi Rudrata in Rishabha, and Ashvakranta in Gandhara. Besides, there are other Murchanas like Souvira in Madhyama Swara, Harshika in Panchama and Uttarayata in Dhaivata Swara. The seven Murchanas utilised by Rishis are also normally used by humans. Normally, there are ten ‘Gunas’ in music viz. Rakta, Purna, Alankrita, Prasanna, Vyakta, Vikrushta, Slakshana, Sama, Sukumara, and Madhura. When ‘Venu’ (Flute), ‘Veena’ (stringed instrument) and Vocal are rendered together then that combination is known as Rakta or ‘Ranjana’. Swara and Shruti (for eg. Kshobini Shruti in Shadaja, Tivra in Komala Rishabha, Dayavanti in Komala Gandharva, Prasarini in Tivra Madhyama, Alapini in Shuddha Dhaivataini in Komal Nishad) as also ‘Chhanda’ (Prosody) along with clear pronounciation are called ‘Purna’; Alankrita denotes the Swara from the throat down to the place of heart and taking the sound up to the head; Prasanna emerges from kantha in ‘gadgada’ sound; Vyakta or clearly pronounced by the ‘Pada’(letter), Padartha (material), vachana (eka or bahu / single or many) etc. When the sound is clear in high pitch and understood by the letters of Alphabet is Vikrushta; Slakshan is that Shriti which is devoid of either Dhruta or quick and Vilambita or elongated; Sama is that Shriti which normal by aspects without ups and downs; Sukumara Shruti is of soft nature and Madhura is sweet and sonorous.   In regard to the Swaras of Padas (letters) there are eight varieties viz. Antodaatta ( like Agnih in ‘Agnirvritraani’), Adyudaatta ( like Somah in Somah pavatey), Udaatta and Anudaatta respectively are like Pra and vah in the word ‘Pra voyahvam’; Neecha Swarit is the word Veeryam in the expression ‘Balam nyubjam veeryam’; Madhyadaatta like Havisha in the word ‘Havishaa vidhema’; Swarita like Swaha in the expression   ‘Bhurbhuvah swaha’ and finally Dirudaatta as ‘V’kara and ‘spa’ in ‘Vanaspatih’.
‘Adi Swaras’ are three in number viz. Udatta (high tone), Anudatta (low tone) and Swarita (medium). The Swarita is known as ‘Swaar’ and there are seven Swaars viz. Jaatya, Kshepra, Abhinihit, Taira Vyanjana, Tiroviraama, Prashlishta and Paadavritta. [The wide range of Musical forms includes simple ‘Sarali’ (Easy to the beginners) with single or double digit variety like ‘S-R-G-M-P-D-N or SS-RR-GG-MM-PP-DD-NN; ‘Taara Sthayi’(elevated pitch); ‘Alankaram’or musical ornamentation; ‘Geeta’ or simple musical forms; ‘Swarajati’with complexes like Pallavi, Anupallavi and Charanam; Kritis or fulfledged singing; Varnam; Kirtana or lyrics; Kriti (higher form of singing); Ragamalika (garland of Raagas), Jaavali, Tillana and so on. [Select Raagas according to timings of day/ night: Before Sun rise- Bhoopaala, Bauli, Malayamaaruta; Early morning: Bilhari, Kedaram, Dhanyasi; before noon: Asavari, Saveri, Deva Manohari; Mid-day and later: Sri Ragam, Madhyamavati; before Evening: Mukhara, Begada; Evening: Vasanta, Purva Kalyani; Night: Neelambari, Kedaragoula; any time: Bhairavi, Kambhoji, Shankarabharanam or Kalyani.] 
Kalpa Granth: The second Vedanga relates to Kalpa Granth as described by Sanandana to Narada. Kalpa comprises Nakshaktra Kalpa, Veda Kalpa, Samhitaa Kalpa, Aangirasa Kalpa and Shanti Kalpa. In the Nakshatra Kalpa, there was a description of the Head of Stars, viz. Chandra as also of the notable Nakshatras. In Veda Kalpa, the methodology of achieving the ‘Purusharthas’ (Human Objectives) related to Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha was detailed. In Samhita Kalpa there was guidance to ‘Tatwa Darshi’to Munis regarding the ‘Mantras’ about the Rishis, Chhandas and Devatas. In the Angirasa Kalpa, Lord Brahma himself was stated to have given the ‘Abhichara Vidhi Vidhana’ or of the procedures of magical / charms / benevolent or manevolent Karmas like Vashya, Mohana, Ucchhaatana and Unmaada. In the Shanti Kalpa, Mantras and Procedures to ward off dangers or to usher in Good Tidings from Celestial, Terrestrial or Extra-Terrestrial Sources are detailed.
  Apart from the Five Kalpas mentioned above, the most significant Kalpa relates to Griha Kalpa  which describes the details of the preparation of ‘Homa Vedika’; usage of Kusha grass in the fingers of the Karta performing the Homa; the role of housewives to bring Agni to install in the Homa Kunda; the features of Agni Deva with two faces, six eyes, seven tongues, ‘Pingala Varna’, three hands on his left side and four on the right, three mekhalas or waistbands and three feet; dhyana to Agni; performance of homa of milk, curd, honey, ghee or ghee-cooked items like Anna with Til; the mudras to be used viz. Mrigi, Hamsi and Suukari ( Suukari Mudra in Abhicharika Karmas only); and the application of appropriate Mudras and the finger prescription for targetted purposes. Thereafter, the ‘Karta’ or the principal performer of the Homa ought to invoke Ganapati and do the Puja to ensure that there would be no obstacles faced by the Karta. [By the pre-arranged water vessels, ‘Mangala Snaana’is performed to ‘Karta’or the Person performing the Puja reciting the Mantra: Sahasraaksham shata dharamrishibhih paavanam krutam, teyna twaamabhishnchaami paavamaanyah punantu tey (May the sacred waters which have thousands of eyes representing as many Shaktis having innumerable flows sanctified by Maharshis purify you along with powerful  hymns being rendered!)
 There after, ‘Abhishekas’of Varuna, Surya, Brihaspati, Indra, Vayu, and Saptarshigana would follow with the Mantra: Bhagam tey Varuney Rajaa Bhagam Suryo Brihaspatih, Bhagamindrascha Vaayuscha bhama Saptarshiyo daduh/ (Raja Varuna, Surya, Brihaspati, Indra and Vayu as also Saptarshis, please provide ‘Kalyan’ (auspiciousness). Then there should be Jala Shanti with the Mantra: Yattey keseshui dourbhagyam seemantey yacchha Murdhani, Lalaatey Karnayo rakshanopaadastad ghnantu sarvadaa/  (Whatever ‘dourbhagya’ or inauspiciousness is present in your hairs, hair parting, head, forehead, ears and eyes be obliterated for ever with this Jala Shanti or peaceful showers). After the Puja of Ganaadhyaksha, Devi Parvati’s worship be taken up by prostrating before Ganapati and Parvati, first reciting Tat purushaaya Vidmahey Vakra tundaaya dhimahey, Tanno Danti prachodayaat; then to Devi Gauri saying: Sowbhaagyayai Vidmahey, Kamala Maalinyai dheemahey, tanno Gauri prachodayaat. Worship of Devi Parvati with Paadya, Pushpa, Dhupa, Dipa, Naivedya and Mantra Pushpa reciting the hymn: Rupam Dehi Yasho Dehi Bhagam Bhagavati Devi mey, Putraan dehi dhanam dehi Sarv kaamaanscha dehi mey/ (Bhavati! Kindly bestow on me good appearance, fame, auspiciousness, good progeny, wealth and fulfillment of all my desires!).
This Puja would be followed by the worship of ‘Nava Grahas’ by arranging idols of Surya with copper, Chandra with silver or sphatika or crystal, Mangala with Rakta varna Chandana or red sandalwood, Budha and Guru with gold, Shukra with silver again, Shani Deva with loha /iron and Rahu and Ketu with glass as also with appropriate Vastras or coloured clothing, Mantras and Puja material especially the flowers suitable to Nava Grahas. Venerable worship of Matrikas viz. Gauri, Padma, Shachi, Medha, Savitri, Vijaya, Jaya, Devasena, Swadhaa, Swaahaa, Vaidhruti, Dhruti, Pushti, Hrishti, and Tushti would follow. The Griha Kalpa Vidhana then describes the worship of Pitrus viz. Vasu Rupas, Rudra Rupas, and Aditya Rupas, especially on Amavasyas, Ashtakas, Vriddhi Karyas like the occasions of weddings, Krishna Pakshas, the days beginning the Uttarayana and Dakshinayana, Surya Sankranti, Vyatipata Yoga, Gajachhaaya, Chandra Grahana (Lunar Elipse), Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse) and of course on the Tithis of the Karta’s dead parents. After reciting Pitrubhyah Staanamasi or keeping Pitras in their respective places, then the task of Agnou Karana, meaning thereby perform ‘Aahuti’ or oblation of Cooked Rice with ghee saying: Agnaey kavyavaahanaya swaaha namah, Somaaya Pitru mataye swaha etc. The rest of Naivedya is served to Brahmanas, Karta and family. Such is the ‘Kalpa Vidhana’ in brief and its execution with sincerity and devotion would certainly bestow wealth, Vidya, keerti, progeny, contentment in life and salvation thereafter.! 

           Vyakarana Shastra: The third component of Vedanga pertains to since Vyakarana (Grammar) constitutes ‘Veda Mukha’ or the Face of Vedas. For example, Sanandana proposed two words to Narada viz. ‘Subanth’ and ‘Tidanth’; suppose the last letter is ‘Ananth’ and the Pratyaya or prefix is ‘Sup’, then the word is Subanth; ‘Sup’has seven ‘vibhaktis’(Cases), of which the first is Su (Prathama  or ‘Eka’ vachana), Au (Dwi or two) vachana and ‘Jas’( bahu or many vachanas).                                                                     
In Prathama Vibhakti or the first vibhakti (Nominative / about the performer or subject) the proposed person’s ‘linga’ (gender), Parimaan (volume or quantity) and ‘Vachan’ (number), etc. need to be specified. For instance, linga is ‘thata’; ‘thati’ and ‘thatam’; parinama is one kg. of rice and vachan is one, two or many. The specific Karma (Predicate or part of sentence excluding the Subject) is as ‘Harih sevyatey’ or Hari is served (by Bhaktas/ devotees) and in this sentence karma is the Vaachya; whereas in another sentence ‘Lakshmya sevitah’ or [Bhaktas] served through Lakshmi. If Karta himself is vaachya, then the sentence could be ‘Harih karoti’ or Hari performs. 

In  Dwiteeya (second) Vibhakti (accusative or the Object)the affix words used are ‘Am’, ‘Aou’, and ‘Shas’ followed by the vachan or number like one, or two or many. If the sentence is ‘Harim pujati’ ie Hari is worshipped, then kartha is not specified and that is ‘Anukt’or silent / unspecified. Also, dwiteeya vibhakti is utilised with words like ‘Antara’ or ‘Antarena’; for eg. Antaraa twaam Harih which means Hari is outside you and me; Antarena Harim sukham which means ‘There is no happiness without Hari. 

In the Triteeya (third) Vibhakti, (Instrumental/ instrument)the suffix words used are ‘taa’, ‘bhyaam’ and ‘bhis’ followed again as always by the vachan as in the earlier vibhaktis. In the context of ‘Karan’ (doing), ‘Karya’ (action) and ‘Anukta’ or unspecified ‘Karta’ or the doer, this Vibhakti is utilised as in the sentence: ‘Ramena baaneyna hato Vaali’meaning Rama’s arrows killed Vaali; here Rama is the unspecified Karta.                                                                                                                  

In the Chaturthi Vibhakti, (dative or from whom action is performed)the words applicable are ‘im’, ‘bhyaam’ and ‘bhyas’ and is used when ‘sampradaan karaka’ or giving away / donastion of a vastu (thing / material) is to be performed: ‘Brahmanaaya gaam dadaati’ or Brahmana is given a cow. This vibhakti is also utilised when a tasteful thing is given away: ‘Haraye roachatey bhaktih’ or Hara is happy with Bhakti.

In Panchami Vibhakti, (ablative or where action is performed), the relevant suffix words are ‘Imsi’, ‘Bhyaam’ and ‘Bhyas’ and is used in ‘Apadaan karaka’ when somebody goes away somewhere, something is brought or taken, something or sombody is seperated. The examples are ‘Graamaadpaiti’ or Goes away from the village; ‘Devaduttah Yajnadadaat pustakam samaadatey’ or Devadatta takes away a book from Yajnadutta; ‘Paatraat odanam grihnnati’ or Food is taken from a vessel; ‘Ashvaat patati’ or Falls from a horse; ‘Parvataat Nadee nissarati’ or River falls from a Mountain.

The suffix words used in Shashthi Vibhakti ( Possessive or possession) are ‘Ims’, ‘Ose’ and ‘Aam’ and the Vibhakti emphasises the ‘bhedak’relationship of Master and Servant or the difference of status such as in the expressions like ‘Grihasya Swami’ or the Master of the house hold; ‘Raajnah sevakah’ or servant of Raja; and ‘Dasaradhasya putrah’ or Dasaratha’s son.

In the Saptami Vibhakti ( locative of action),the affix expressions are ‘Ims’, ‘Ose’ and ‘Sup’ used in Adhikarana kaarak such as in ‘Grihey vasati’ or Resides in the house.The context of ‘Adhaara’(hold) is also used in Saptami Vibhakti. Adhaara is of three varieties viz. Auopashloshaka, Vaishayaka and Abhivyaapaka; the respective examples are ‘Katey aastey’ or seated on a mat / ‘Mokshey icchhaa asti’ or Moksha is desired, ‘Sarvasmin Atma asti’ Atma is in everything and ‘Chouryaa -dvibheti’ or afraid of stealing. Raksharthak Dhaatu (verbal root, an ingredient of an expression) is used in this Vibhakti as in ‘Paapaad rakshati’ or saved from the sin. Sambodhana Vibhakti (denominative/ used to address someone) as in Prathama Vibhakti.  

To sum up with Rama shabda and Purusha linga: 

Vibhakti Eka Vachana Dwi Vachana Bahu Vachana Suffixes
Prathama Raamah Raamou Raamaah Su, Au, Jas
Dwitiya Raamam Raamou Raamaan Am, Au, Shas
Triteeya Raamyena Raamaabhyam Raamaih Ta, bhyaam, bhis
Chaturtha Raamaaya Raamaabhyaa Raamebhyah Im, bhyaam, bhyas
Panchami Raamaat Raamebhyaam Raamebhyah Imsi, bhyaam, bhyas
Shasthi Raamasya Raamayoh Raamaanaam Ims, Ose, Aam
Saptami Raamey Raamayoh Raameshu Ims, Ose, Sup 
Sambodhana Hey Rama Hey Raamou Hey Raamaah (As in Prathama)  

Illustrations: In the usage of  ‘Pari’, Apa’, ‘Aayim’, ‘Itara’, ‘Rutey’, ‘Anya’ and ‘Digvachaka Shabda’, Panchami Vibhakti is used; for eg. Pari Harey Samsaarah or Srihari is different from Samsara; Apa Hareyh Sarva doshaaah or All the blemishes are far from Hari; Aa Muktey Samsaarah or Till the attainment of Moksha Samsaaraa cintinues; Itarah Krishnah or distinct from Krishna; Rutey Bhagavatah or deviod of Bhagavan; Anyah Shri Raamaat or different from Shri Rama; Aaraat Vanaat or Forest is near or far etc.To signify the words, Lakshana, Itthhambhutaakhyan, Bhaga and Veepsa; the ‘Avyayas’* viz. Prati, Pari, Anu are used as Karmapravachaneeya Sanjnaas. In respect of Lakshana the illustration is Vriksham prati pari anu vaa vidyotatey vidyut or Vidyut is attracted to run into the tree; vriksham is manifested and vidyu gets awareness.  *[Indeclinables viz. prepositions or upasargas, adverbs, particles, conjunctions and interjections].

Again, Bhakto Vishnum prati pari Anu vaa: here the shabda Idyambhut means the obtaining of ‘viseshan’; Bhakto Vishnum prati pari anu vaa: Bhakta Swarup is viseshan, Purush is to obtain Him; vibhakti is dwiteeya. To illustrate the word ‘Bhaga’, it may be said: Lakshmi Harim prati pari anu va, which means Lakshmi is Vishnu’s belonging with a right over her as she is a ‘bhaag’or part of him. The word Veepsa as afore mentioned, the illustrative sentence would be ‘Vriksham Vriksham prati sinchati’ or pari sinchati or anu sinchati, meaning there by: The trees are interlinked.

There is also a method to use Avyayas viz. Namah, Swasti, Swadhaa, Swaahaa, Alam and Vashat in Chaturthi Vibhakti viz. Haraye namah, Swasti Prajaabhyaha, Agnaye Swaahaa, Pitrubhyah swadhaa, Alam mallow Mallaaya, vashat Indraaya. If an action is meant for a ‘vastu’ (thing), that vastu would be in Chaturti Vibhakti expressed in bodhaka shabda, like Muktaye Harim bhajati or Hari is worshipped for Mukti.

After the usage of Vibhaktis, Sanandana explained to Narada about Swar-Sandhis like Madhudakam (Madhu+Udakam or Honey plus water), and Pitrushabhah (Pitru+ Rishabhah or the senior in the Paternal side) known as Siddhi Sandhis; Gangodakam (Ganga + Udakam) or Krishnaikatwam (Krishna+Ekatwam or Krishna’s singularity or uniqueness); these examples are Vriddhi Sandhis; Dadhyanna (Dadhi+anna or curd rice) and Pitrathah (Pitru+Artha) or Father’s wealth as the egs.of Yuga Sandhis; Haraye (Hara+Ye ) or for Hara and Lavanah (Lo+Anah) or salt as egs.of Yagadi Sandhi; Tasmaarghya (Tasmai+arghya or Water for him) and Ta Adyaah (Tey+ Aadhyaah or they are the foremost) are egs. of Yalopa and Valopa Sandhis; Hareva (Hara+eva or Hara! Save me) is a Purva Rupa Sandhi; Amegha (Ami+Agha or He is a sinner) and Shouri+Etou (these are Krishna Balaram), Vishnu+imou or these are both Vishnu rupas or Durga+amu or these two are of Durga rupas as examples of Prakriti bhava sandhis; Shadastra (Shat+astra), Shanmaatarah (Shat+matarah) and Vaak+Surah or Vaakchurah/ Expert in conversation are vyanjana Sanshis. Padachhedana sandhis are Chakrim -shicchhandhi or Chakrin+Chhindi or Chakradhari! do snap my bandhan etc. So far Vyanjana Sandhis were described.

Now Visarga Sandhi examples are given as below:
Ramaah kaamyah krupah pujyo Harih pujyorcha eva hi/ Raamo drushtobalaa Atra supta drishtaa imaa yatah (Ramah+ kaamyah or Shri Ram is dear; Kripah + Pujyah or Kripacharya is worthy of worship; Pujorarchayah -Pujyasya+ Archayah- pujaniya and Archaniya; Ramodrishtah or Ramas + drishtah / Ram has been seen; Abalaas+atrah or there are women; Suptadrishta or supatas+drishtaah or looked like slept off; imaayatah or Imaas +Atah or these women thus. Thus are the examples of Samhitas / Sandhis. 

 Subhanta Prakarana : ‘Mangalacharana’- In the name of Rama, following Stanza covers each of the Vibhaktis:                                                                                                                           
 Raamenaabhihitam karomi satatam Raamam bhajey saadaram, Raamenaapahyatam samasta duritamRaamaaya tubhyam namah/ Raamaanmuktirabheepsitaa mama sadaa Raamasya daasomyaham, Raamey rajyatu mey manah Suvishadam hey Raama thubhyam namah (I follow the instructions given by Shri Rama always. I perform bhajan to Shri Rama as an ideal. Ram has destroyed all my sins. Bhagavan Shri Rama! My salutations to you. My desire from Shri Ram is to accomplish Moksha. I am always Shri Rama’s servant. May my clean conscience be contented by me. Hey Shri Rama! These are my greetings to you).

Sarvanamas : In Sanskrit Literature, ‘Sarva naamaas’ occupy an important place, like the Srava Shabdas:Sarvah, Sarvou, Sarvey- Sarvam, Sarvou, Sarvaan-Sarvena,Sarvabhyaam, Sarvaih - Sarvasmai, Sarvabhyaam, Sarvebhyah-Sarvasmaat, Sarvabhyaam, Sarvebhyah- Sarvasya, Sarvayoh, Sarveshaam-Sarvasmin, Sarvayoh, Sarveshu. Also, in Hari Naama : Harih, Haree, Harayah-Harim, Haree, Hareen- Harinaa, Haribhyaam, Haribhih- Haraye, Haribhyaam, Haribhyah- Hareyh, Haryom, Harinaam- Harou, Haryoh, Harishu-, Hey Harey Hey Haree, Hey Harayah. Then there are examples like Kartru Shabda in karya vachaka like in Karthaa Kartarou Kartaarih etc., Rai shabda as Raah, Raayou, Raayah etc. in dhana Vachaka; Nou shabda is in nouka vachaka; dwi, thri or chatur shabda in sanjna vachaka etc. 

Tadhita Pratyayanta Shabdas (Noun form suffixes) have been illustrated such as Devatarthaka (Aindram Havih or this is for Indra); Idamarthaka (Tasya Idam like kumkumena raktam Vastram); Bhavarthaka (Kshtrasyaapatyam jaatih Kshatriyah or in Ksartakula, only Kshatria is born); Jaatartha (Dayaalu, Kripaalu); Praachyurta or Adhikata (Annamayo Yagnah; Annamaya, Streemaya, Mrunmayah Ashwah (or horse made of mud); Jaatardha (Shreyan shreyaamsou shreyaamsi) etc. The pratyayas referred to are: ‘an’ pratyaya, ‘twal’ pratyaya, ‘tal’ pratyaya, ‘mayat’ pratyaya, ‘in’ pratyaya, and ‘matup’ pratyaya.

Tendu Prakarana : Dhatus (Tissues or Elements of the Language) Vyaiyakaranas (Grammarians) classified ten kinds of Dhatus: Bhavadi, Adyaadi, Juhotyadyaadi, Devaadi, Swaadi, Trutaadi, Rudhhadi, Tanaadi, Vrayaadi, and Churaadi. In respect of Bhavaadi, the formations possible include Bhavanti Bhavatah Bhavanti. In Adyaadi Gana, the permutations possible include ati bhakshan.In ‘Johothyadi gana’, ‘hu’ dhatu is significant like juhoti, juhova, juhavaanchakaar, juhavaamba bhuv, juhavaamas, hota, hoshyati, juhuyat, huhaat, ahousheet, ahoshyat etc. In Devaadi ganas, Diva dhatu is important which has many meanings like kreeda, Vijaya-oriented desire, vyavahar, dyuti, stuti, moda, mada, swapna, kaanti and gati; as in the earlier gana the expressions generated are Deevyataat, Devata, Devishyati, Deevyatu, Adeevyat, Deevyeta, etc. In Swaadi gana, ‘su dhhat’ is important like Sunotu, Sushaava, Sotha, Soshyati, Asunotu, Sunayaat, etc. In ‘Tudaadi gana’, ‘Thudu’dhhatu is important which means creating difficulties like in the suffixes tudati, tutoda, tottha, totsyati, tudatu, anudatu, tudetu etc. In Rudhhadi dhatu, Rudh dhatu is the main one for example, rundhe, rurudhey, rotasatey, arundh, rundheet, rotseeshth, etc. (deepening, surrounding, stopping and so on). ‘Tan’ dhatu is significant in Tanadi gana dhatus whose task is to expand, spread out and increase like Tanoti, tataana, tanita, tanishyati, atanot, tanuyaat, atanishyat etc. The word ‘kri’ is important in Vrayaadi dhatu which refers to purchasing, exchanging, selling etc.; the illustrations are kreenaati, chikraaya, kreta, kreshyati, kreenaatu, akreenaat, akresheet etc. Finally, in the context of Churaadi gana the reference is for ‘chora’ or stealing / thieving and examples include chorayati, chorayamaas, chorayanchakara, chorayita etc. Krudanta Prakarana :  Those Pratyayas or Verb forms (suffixes) end up with the expression ‘krit’ are called Krudanth Pratyayas viz. nyavul, truch, achi, tavyat, tavya, aneeyar, kelimar, etc. The sentence ‘Twaya maya anyaischa yedhitavyam’ includes the verb forms of tavya and aneeyar. [Elsewhere, other verb forms were also mentioned such as   ‘tumun’ pratyaya, ‘ktvaaccha pratyaya, ‘lyap’ pratyaya, ‘ktavatup’ pratyaya, ‘yat’ pratyaya, shatri pratyaya, ‘shaanach’ pratyaya, ‘ktin’ pratyaya, ghunj pratyaya, and ‘khal’ pratyaya].

Samaasaas (Compound noun): Muni Sanandana then described ‘Samaasa Prakarana’. Normally, there are five kinds of Samasas viz. Avyayi bhava, Tatpurusha, Karma Dhaaraya, Bahuvreehi and ‘dwigu’. When the first word is Avyaya, that Samaasa is known as of Avyai bhava (eg. upa nagaram or near the town). Tatpurusha’s illustrations are: Ramaashrita (Rama+Ashrita); Dhyaanaartha (Dhyaanena+ Artha); Rajapurushah (Rajnajh+purusha) etc.  Digu (numerical determinative compound) is a Sankhya vaachaka samaasa like ‘Panchaanaam gavaam samaahaarah panchagavyam’ or Panchagavyam is the mix of cow’s five products (viz.milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung). Tatpurusha’s Karmadharaya (Adjective compound) is a compound of Viseshya and Viseshana like Neela + Utpala or the blue water lily. Bahuvreehi Samaasa is illustrated by the expression: ‘Paaptam udakam yam sa praaptodakam graamah’ or the village where water reaches is noted as water-receiver. Dwandwa samasa is called ‘samuchya’or combination of various words like in the sentence: ‘Isham Gurum cha bhajaswa’ which means Ishwara and Guru-both-are doing bhajana.

Karaka Prakarana :

Karaka      Vibhakti / Case     Process       Example
Karta   First / Nominative Subject used with verb Ramaha nripaanaam ratnam
Karma Second/ Accusative Denotes the object (Aham) Raamam pujayami
Karaka Third / Instrumental Denotes agent / action Ramena Ravanah hatah
Sampradaana Fourth/ Dative Denotes object/action Ramam namami
Apadana Fifth / Ablative Separation/division Ramasya adhi gamyam
*Genitive Sixth/ Possessive Denotes noun to noun Ramasya daasaa asmi aham
Adhikara Seventh/Locative Place of action Ramasyopari hridayam bhavatu
Sambodhana - As in the First Person being addressed Bho! Rama maam uddhhara

*Normally, this usage of noun to noun in the same sentence is not used. 
Source: Hindupedia.                                                                                                              

Nirukta Varnana:

‘Nirukta’ (Etymological or derived /rhetoric/artificial interpretations) which is basically an extension of Vyakarana seeks to bring out the hidden meaning of Vedas which apparently do not express the total intent and implication. The word ‘Nir’ connotes the comprehensive sense that is sought to be conveyed and ‘Ukta’states that which is expressed, thus indicating that a lot more is to be revealed. As regards the Karna Rupa or the Ear-Forms of the‘Vaidika Dhatus’, Nirukta is of five forms viz. ‘Aagama’, ‘Viparya’, ‘Vikara’, ‘Naasha’ and ‘Uttama Yog’. The Varna (Coverage or Classification) of Aagama signifies ‘Hamsa’ and the interchange of the word is ‘Simha’ which is the second formation of Varna called Viparya. Varna Viparya leads to Varna Vikara known as ‘Goodhotma’ or Goodha +Atma as in ‘Esha Sarveshu Bhuteshu Goodhotma na prakaashatey’. From Varna Vinasha is followed by ‘Prushodara’ or Prusha d+Udara. In the fifth form, Muni Sanandana explained to Narada that the words like ‘Bhramara’ indicated that deeper understanding of the Ruchas (Hymns) of Vedas was incomplete as a Bhramara had not tasted the full store of honey yet! It was not merely the grammatical correctness of the words, but their origin and context which were more significant. [Satyameva artham aayayati gamayateeti Satyam (That which imparts true knowledge about the existing objects is the ultimate Truth!). One who simply recites Vedas is like a ‘Sthanu’ (pillar).He who understood the words and the meaning would be a real source of happiness to self and guidance to others. Artha vaachah Pushpam phalam (Meaning of what is said is like the blossom and fruit!). The famed Yakshacharya, the author of Nirukta Text (800 AD approx) who followed the Grammarian Panini felt: Naisha sthaanoraparaatho yadenamandho na pashyati, Purushaaraparaadham sa bhavati (If a blind person were unable to vision a Pillar, it is not the fault of the pillar but of the blind person! 
‘Chhandas Shastra’:
Maharshi Sanandana explained to Brahmarshi Narada about Chhandas Shastra which too is an important component of Vedangas; it is stated: Chhandah paadow tu Vedasya or Chhandas denotes the feet of Vedas. ‘Chhandas’ is of two types viz. ‘Vaidik’ or related to Vedas and ‘Loukik’or for general use.Vaidik Chhanda expresses Gayatri Mantra: ‘Tatsavitur varenyam Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi Dhiyoyonah prachodayaat’. Anushthup Yajati, Brihatya Gaayati, Gaayatrya stoutati: Anushthup is used fot Yagnas, Brihati Chhanda is for singing and Gayatri is used for Stutis.The Loukika chhanda is used in Puranas, Itihasaas, and Kavyas in poetical forms, for eg. Sarva dharmaan parityajya maammekam sharanam vraja, Ahamtwa sarvapaapebhyo mokshamishyaami maa shuchah (This Shloka is in Anushthup chhanda). Both the Vaidik and Loukik Chhandas have two kinds based on ‘Matras’ and Varnas’ (units or quality) known as Martik and Varnik. The Chhanda Shastra comprises ‘Ganas’ (group of three Aksharas or letters) and Gurus / Laghus or Big and Small in terms of ‘S’ or ‘I’. The Ganas are as follows: 1) ‘Ya’gana: ISS for eg. Ya+Maa+Taa; 2) ‘Ma’ gana: SSS for eg.Maa+Taa+Raa; 3) ‘Ta’ gana: SSI for eg. Taa+Raa+ Ja; 4) ‘Ra’gana: SIS for eg. Raa+ Ja+Bhaa; 5) ‘Ja’gana: ISI for eg. JA+ BHA+ Na; 6) ‘Bha’ gana: SII for eg. Bhaa+Na+ Sa; 7) ‘Na’ ganam: III for eg. Na+SA+La; 8) ‘Sa’ganam: IIS for eg. Sa +La+ Gaah. To summarise, the following may be noted for facility: 

YaMaaTaa (ISS), MaaTaa Raa (SSS), TaaRaaJa (SSI), Raa JaBhaa (SIS); JaBhaaNa (ISI), Bhaa Na Sa (SII), Na Sa La (III), Sa La Gah (IIS)

The Ruling Deities of the Ganas as above are: Ya gana ( Jala), Ma gana (Prithvi), Ta gana (Akash), Ra gana (Agni), Ja gana (Surya), Bha gana (Chandra), Na gana (‘Ayu’or Life/ Health), Sa gana (Vayu). The ‘Phala’or fruits / results are: Vriddhi or Abhyudaya / Growth or Progress in respect of Ya gana; Lakshmi/wealth for Ma gana; Dhana Naasha for Ta gana; Vinasha for Ra gana; Roga or ill-health for Ja gana; Su yasha for Bha gana; Ayu for Nagana and Bhramana or travel for Sa gana.
In the Chhanda Shastra, the Akshar ‘Ga’ stands for Guru and ‘La’ for Laghu; combination of two Gurus (SS) is called Sarva Guru; two Laghus and a Guru (IIS) is Antya Guru; laghu+Guru+laghu  (ISI) is Madhya Guru; Guru+Laghu+Laghu (SII) is Adi Guru ; and four laghus are Chatur laghus (IIII). The diffrences are denoted as Karna, Karatala, Payodhara, Vasucharana and Vishta. Again, Samyog, Visarga and Anuswara in respect of Laghus are signified as in Ramam, Ramah and Ramasya. In respect of a Padya (Poem) or Shloka (Stanza), there is a ‘Paada’ (Line) consisting of four lines. There is a ‘Yati’or a pausing point in each paada. In Chhanda, there are three ‘Vrittas’ (circles) viz. Sama Vritta, Artha Vritta and Vishama Vritta. In Sama Vritta, in all the four ‘Paadaas’ (lines), there are the same number of Hraswa-Deergha Aksharas (Short and Long Letters) numbering seventeen in each line, as for instance in Shikhirini Chhanda: Mukhey tey taambulam nayana yugaley kajjalakalaa lalaatey kaashmiram vilasati galeymouktika lataa Sphuratkaanchi shaati Pruthukatitatey haatakamayee bhajaami twam Gauri nagapati kishori -maviratam. An example of ‘Ardha Sama Vritta’ is Jagadamba vichitramatra kim paripurna karunaasti chenmayi, Aparaadha paramparaamparam na hi Maataa samupekshatey Sutam (This poem is in Harinapluta Chhanda). The example of Vishama Vritta is Nalinekshanam Shashi mukham cha Ruchidarshanam Ghanacchivam/ Chaarucharana kamalamKamaanchitaavraja Vraja Mahendra vandanam/This is in Udrataa naamaka Chhanda. Example of ‘Dandakas’ is in Twenty six letters : Iaha hi bhavati dandakaaranya desho sthitih punyabhaanjaam Muneenam manoharinii, Tridashaa Vijayi  Veerya drupahaddashgrivalakshmi viraamena Raamena samsevitey. Apart from Dandakas, there are three or six lined ‘Gathas’.
Then, there are many other kinds of ‘Chhandas’ ranging from one to twenty six lettered lines viz. Ukta, Atyukta, Madhya, Pratishtha, Supratishtha, Gayatri, Ushnik, Anushthup, Brihati, Padinkti, Trishthup, Jagati, Ati Jagati, Shakvari, Atishakvari, Ashti,  Atyashti dhriti, Viddhtuti /Atidhruti, Kriti, Prakriti, Aakriti, Viktiti, and Abhikriti. Example of ‘Ukta’ is ‘Vishnum Vandey’ in ‘Shri’ Chanda; in ‘Ayukta’, the example is‘Anya Sreebhih Sangastaajyaha in ‘Stree’ Chhanda (in two Deergha Maatras ie. SS). ‘Madhya’ has three letters each in ‘Naari’ Chhanda with the example ‘Sarvaasaam Naareenam Bhatraa syadaaraadhyayah’ in SSS formation. ‘Pratishtha’ has four letters each in fourlines (SSSS) in Kanya Chhanda: Bhhasvatkanyaa saikaa dhanyaa/ Yayaah kuuley Krishnokhelat; ‘Supratishtha’ has five letters in seven lines and the seventh line is different from the other lines and this is in Pankti Chhanda as in Krishnasa Naathhha Tarnika pancktih, Yaamuna kacchhey chaaru chachaara ( in SIISS formation.). A formation of six letters in four of the Paadaas is seen in ‘Gayatri’ Chhanda Samuha (Group), which has four sub-divisions: ‘Vidullekha’ (SSSSSS) as in Gogopigopanaam preyaamsam praanesham, Vidyullekha vastraam Vandeham Govindam; ‘Tanumadhya’ (SSIISS) as in Preetyaa prativeylam, saivey gatatan -dram,Vrindavana Chandram; ‘Shashivadan’ (IIIISS) as in Paramamudaaram vipina vihaaram, Bhaja pratipaalam Vrajapati baala; and ‘Vasumati(SSIIIS) as in Bhaktaartikadanam Samsiddha sadamanam, Noumeeduvadanam Govidmadhunaa/. In the ‘Ushnik’ Group, there is a seven-seven letter formation with as many as tewnty eight letters in each Paada or line, but the most known  is Madalekha with SS  SIISS  SSSI  I SS viz. Magana, Sagana and one Guru as illustrated in Rangay Baahuvirugnaad Danteendran madalekhaa, Lagnaabhunmura shatraou kasturi rasa charchaa/. In the eight lettered / four lined ‘Anushthup’ Chhanda’ too, there are two hundred seventy six varieties, and there are differences among Vidyunmala, Manavakaa Kreeda, Chitrapada, Hamsaruth, Pranaamika or Nagaswarupini, Samaanika, Shloka and Vitana; for instance, Vidunmaala the letter combination is eight Gurus or SSSSSS SS such as in Vidyunmaalaalolaan bhogaan Miktwa Moukto Yatnam , kruyaat, Dhyanotpannam nih saamaanyam Soukhyam Bhoktum yadyaakaanthakshet. In Nagaswarupini Shiva tandava Sthotra with Ja, Ra, Ja, Ra, Ja and one Guru. Illustration is: Jatakatah sambhrama bhramatrilimpani jharee vilola veechi vallaree viraajamaana murdhini, Bhagad bhagaddhuga jjwalallalaata patta paavakey Kishora Chandra shekharey Ratih pratikshanam mama (I S I S I S I S I S I S I S I S IS). The nine-nine lettered and four lined Chhanda Samuha is called ‘Brihati’ is illustrated by ‘Halamukhi’ which has one each of Ra gana, Na gana, and Sa gana and ‘Bhujanga Shishubhrita’ which has two Na ganas and One Bhagana. Pankti is a ten-letter group and among thousand twenty eight variations such as Shuddha Virat, Panava, Rukmavati, Mayura saarini, Matthaa, Manorama, Hamsi, Upastita and Champaka maala. Trishthup which has eleven worded Chandasa group has innumerable variations (as many as 2048!) and was extensively used in old ‘Granthas’; for instance ‘Upendra Vajra’: I SI SS  I  I S I  SS as illustrated in the Prayer: Twameva Maathaa cha Pithaa twameva twameva Bandhuscha Sakhaa twameva/ Twameva vidyaa dravinam twameva twameva Sarvam mama Deva Deva! Indra Vajra Chanda ( SS I SS  II S I SS) in which there are two Ta ganas-one Ja gana and two Gurus as in: Nirmaana moha jitasanga doshaa Adhyatma nithya vini vritta kaamaah, Dwandwairvimuktaah Sukha Duhkha Sanjnairgacchhantya moodhah padamavyamam tat/ Also, in the same Trishthup category are ‘Dodhaka Vritta’ with three Bha ganas and two gurus; ‘Shalini’ with Ma gana, Ta gana, again Ta gana and two Gurus and many other Chhanda variations like Ratotthata, Swagata, Sumukhi, Shri Bhramara Vilasita, Bhadrika, Shyenika, Mouktikamala, Pramitakshara, and Upasthita. Jagati is the twelfth category of ‘Chhanda Samooha’ with four ‘charanas’ (lines) with as many as four thousand nine hundred six permutations, signifying the variety of poetic structure  (Prosody) that one Chanda Samuha offered. The illustrations are ‘Vamshastha’ Chandas, Indra Vamsha, Drutavilambita, Totaka, Bhujangaprayata, Stragvini, Pramitaakshara, Vaishvadevi etc. Vamshastha has the form of I Ja gana, Ta gana, Ja gana, and Ra gana with ‘Yati’ at the end of each charana (line) viz.: I SI SS  SS    II  SI SI S; ‘Sa Shanka chakram Sa kireeta kundalam Sa Peeta vastram Sarasiruhekshanam/ Sahaaravakshasthala Kaosthubha shriyam Namaami Vishnum Sirsaa Chaturbhujam’/ Another example is the form of ‘Indra Vamsha’ constituted in Ta gana, Ta gana again, Ja gana and Ra gana with Yati or Viraam (break), the Stanza being: Yatkeertanam yatsmaranam yadeekshanam yadvandanam yacchhraavanam yadarhanam, Lokasya sadyo vidhunoti kalmasham tasmai Subhadrasravasey namo namah/    
The next category is named Ati Jagati with thirteen letters and four lines with eight thousand one hundred ninety variations with Ma gana, Na gana, Ja gana, Ra gana, and one Guru with Yati on the third and tenth letters; the ‘Praharshini’with SSS IIII S IS ISS formation is illustrated thus: Jaagarti prasabhavipaaka samvidhatri Shri Vishnorlalita kapolajaa nadi chet, Samkeerna yadibhavitaasti ko vishadah samvaadah Sakala Jagat pitaamahain/ Besides this are the Chhanaas like Kshama, Atiruchiraa Matta Mayura, Gauri, Manjubhaashini and so on. Another variety of Chhandas group is Shakkari with sixteen thousand three hundred eighty four variations, especially ‘Vasanta tilaka’ with Ta gana, Bha gana, two Ja ganas and two Gurus; another popular category is ‘Praharana -kalita’ with two Na ganas, one Bha gana, one Na gana again, one Laghu and one Guru as in: Suramuni Manujai rupachita charanaam ripubhaya chakita Tri Bhuvana sharanam, Pranamata Mahishaasura vadha kupitaam praharana kalitaam Pashupathi dayitaam/ The other ‘Chhando samuhas’ are called  ‘Ashti’, ‘Atyashti’, ‘Dhruti’, ‘Vidhruti’, ‘Kriti’, ‘Prakriti’, ‘Akriti’, ‘Vikriti’, ‘Tanvi’, ‘Samkriti’, and ‘Utkruti’.
The mind-boggling multitude of ‘Chhandas’or Poetic Structures in Sanskrit Language is a        standing proof of the opulence and magnificence of its ‘Vangmaya’ (Literature).
Tri- Skandha Jyotisha Shastra
In the Jyotisha Shastra, Skanda Muni emphasized three Skandhas viz. Ganita (Siddhaanta), Jaataka, (Hora), and Samhita. In Ganita there is Parikarma of Yoga, Antara, Gunana, Bhaajana, Varga, Vargamula, Ghana and Ghanamula; ways and means of  finding Graha madhyama and clarity of positioning, ‘Anuyog’ or the Knowledge of Desha, Disha and Kaalamaana ie. Place, Direction and Time; Chandra Grahana, Surya Grahana, Udaya (Rise), Astama (Setting), Chhaadhikara (dusk), Chandra Shrugonnati or Dwiteeya’s Chandrodaya and Grahayuti (Graha’s Yoga). In the context of Jataka Skandha, description is given of Jaati Bheda (differences of Jaatis), Graha yoni or the details of Jaati, Rupa and Guna; Viniyonija (Janmaphala according to human beings), Garbhadaana, Janma, Arishta, Ayurdaaya or Life span, Dashaakrama or the details of Dashas, Karmaajeeva, Ashtaka Varga, Raja Yoga, Naabh sayoga, Chandra yoga, Pravrajjyaa yoga, Rasi sheela, Anishta Yoga, Stree jaatakaphala, Mrityu vishay nirnaaya, Nashta-Janma-Vidhhana etc. As regards Samhityaskandha, details of Grahachara, Varsha Lakshana, Tithi, Dina, Nakshatra, Yoga, Karana, Muhurtha, UpaGraha, Surya Samkraanti, Graha gochara, Chandra bala / Taara bala, garbhadana to Upanayana and Vivaha, Yatras, as also tatkaala vrishti gyan or of rainfall are described . Among the various aspects mentioned above, some are mentioned briefly as follows:  ‘Sankhya bodhak Sangjnas’ range from Eka (one), Dasha (tens), Shata (hundreds), Sahasra (thousands), Ayut (ten thousands), Laksha ( lakh), Prayuta (million), Koti (Crore), Arbud (ten crores), Abj (hundred crores or arab), Kharva (thousand crores or ten arabs), Nikharva (Kharva or one lakh crores), Maha Padma (one crore crores), Shankah (Neela / ten crore crores), Jaladhi (Ten Neela or hundred crore crores), Antya (Padma or one thousand crore crores), Paraartha (lakh crore crores) and so on. Ganitha Siddhantas were explained by Sanandana to Narada viz. Pari Karma (Yoga, Antara, Gunana, Varga, Vargamula, Ghana and Ghana Mula) ranging from addition or deletion of numericals, Gunana phala, ‘Varga Mula’ or Square Roots, ‘Ghana’ or multiplication of three numbers working out the ‘Ghana Mula’, Concepts of Hara or Bhajak (Divisor), Amsha or Bhajya (dividend) and Sesha or Remainder; finding out Varga Mula, usage of Viloma vidhi in ascertaining ‘rashi’ (Fund) etc. Referring to Kshetra Vyavahara, in a ‘Tribhuja’ or a right angle Triangle, the vertical is called ‘Koti’, ‘bhuja’ is the straight line across and ‘Karna’ is the (hypotenuse). If Koti is 4 and Bhuja is 3, the square of 4 is 16 and that of 3 is 9, then Karna is the total of the square roots of 16+9 or 25 and thus the value of Karna is 5.  Again, in a Vritta Kshetra (Circle), if the Paridhi (Circumference) is 22 and the Vyas or diameter is 7 and both of these are multiplied and result is 154, its Chaturdhamsha or a quarter ie 38 1/2 is the Khetraphal. In the context of ‘Annadi Rashi’ for instance, the ‘Rashis’are broadly reckoned as ‘Sthula’, ‘Madhyama’ and ‘Sukshma’ and their Parithis could be calculated as  Shashthamsa,  Navamamsha, Dasama -amsha and Ekadasas etc.on the basis of the quantity of land, the availability of water bodies with the details of length, width and depth; presence of stones and metallic content etc.  Sanandana Maharshi then explained to Narada about the calculations of ‘Kaala, Desha and Disha viz.Time, Place and Directions. The total duration of Four ‘Yugas’ put together was stated to be thirty three lakh twenty thousand years, of which four times of Dashamsha was the duration of Satya Yuga viz. sixteen lakh twenty eight thousand. In the Dasamsha, one third of the duration was of twelve lakh ninty six thousand years in Treta Yuga; Dwapara Yuga was of the duration of eight lakh sixty four thousand years, while Kali Yuga is only four lakh thirty thousand years. There are seventy one Chatur Yugas in one Manvantara. In Brahma’s one day, there are fourteen Manvantaras and another fourteen Manvantaras are counted in his night additionally. In one Yuga, the Planets of Surya, Budha and Shukra (Sun, Mercury and Venus respectively) in the Eastern side, take a ‘Bhagan’ (Bhaga is Surya) as many as 4,320,000; Mangala, Shani and Brihaspati (Mars, Saturn and Jupiter also make such Bhaganas. Chandra (Moon) makes 577, 53,336 Bhaganas in a Yuga likewise. There are 157,79,17,828 Surya’s one full day-night comencing from Sundays in a Maha Yuga measured in ‘Soura mana’,  while the Moon day-nights from Mondays measured in ‘Chandra mana’ total up to 160,30,00,080 in a MahaYuga; this is to establish the difference in the Solar and Lunar Calendar day-nights viz.2,50,822 days. ‘Adhika Maasa’ is 15, 93,336 in a Maha Yuga, while ‘Thikshaya’ is 250, 82,252. Looked in terms of Solar Months, the number is 518, 40,000 where as Lunar Months are 534, 33,336- all in Maha Yuga. The methodologies of calculating were offered in respect of the current Yuga about  Graha Gyana, Bhumi Paridhi Pramaana; positioning and speed of Grahas (Planets), Graha Vakreekarana or of negative influences and Kaala Gyana.

‘Panchanga  Sadhana’ or Tithi, Vaara, Nakshatra, Karana and Yoga determine the results of good or bad nature to a person.There are Nakshatra Dashas like Vimshottari Dashaa, Ashtottari Dasha, Kala chakra Dasha, Yogini Dasha, etc. Also threre are Rashi Dashas like Narayana Dasha, Ati Karaka Kendriya Dasha, Trikona Desha, as also Ayur Desha. In the context of determining Karanams or one half of Tithi or then time required for the angular distance between Moon and Sun; there are eleven Karanas viz four fixed ones called Kimshugna, Shakuni, Chatushpad and Naagava, besides repetitive Karanas viz.  Bhaava, Kualava, Titula, Garaja, Vanaja, and Vishti. Karanam is active at the time of Sun Rise.Another important input relates to Yoga the angular distance along  the eliptive view of any object on the sky (measured from  Mesha  or the start of Aries) called the longitude of an object when the longitudes of Sun and Moon are added; the result produced a value ranging from Zero degree to 360 degree and that is called Yogam, which is also active in the mornings.There are 27 Yogas like Visha Kamba, Preeti, Ayushman, Sowbhagya, Shobhana, Atiganda, Sukumara, Dhriti, Shula, Ganda, Vriddhi etc. Ayanamsha Sadhana:  The word ‘Ayana’ denotes movement and ‘Amsha’ a component. Ananamsha bhaaga or portion is the amount of ‘precession’ or the orientation of the rotation axis of a rotating body. In astrology, this is a longitudinal difference between ‘Sayana’ (Tropical) and Nirayana (Sidereal) zodiacs. Ayanamsha is defined as the angle between the Sidereal ecliptic longitude of a celestial body and its tropical ecliptic longitude. According to Surya Siddhanta, Ananamsa rises from 0 degree to +27 degrees during 1800 years and decreases to 0 degree to -27 degree thus oscillating within a range of plus/minus 27 instead of cyclically moving in a circle. In astronomy, precession refers to several slow changes in an Astronomical body’s rotational or orbital parameters especially in Earth’s precession of Equinoxes.Periodical changes of Earth’s orbital parameters combined with the precession of equinoxes and the inclinatin of Earth’s axis on its orbit is a part of Astronomy.

 Grahana Sadhana: Chandra Grahana (Lunar Eclipse) takes place on a Pournami and Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse) on Amavasya and these are called Parvas. As ‘Grahas’ rotate on their own axis and perform Pradakshina (circumambulation) around Bhumi, that path is known as the ‘Kasksha’or region of that Graha. Prithvi is far away from the Sun path and Chandra is nearer and is in between Surya and Prithvi. In the direction in which Surya travels, the shadow of Prithvi falls in the opposite direction of Surya’s path and the length of the rotating shadow is equal to that distance. As Prithi is round, the shadow of Chandra is also rounding, moving six ‘Rashis’ away from Surya. Chandra rotatating on its own axis moves along with Surya on the Southern Rekha (Line) and that time is known as Darshanta Kaala ie at the junction of the termination of Amavasya and the beginning of Shukla Pratipada; similarly, when Surya reaches six Rashis ahead that time is Pournima. Thus Surya is shadowed by Chandra and Chandra is shadowed by the shadow of Prithvi; that is why during Surya Grahana, Surya is known as Chhadya or the shadow maker and Chandra is Chhadak; again, in Chandra Grahana, Chandra is Chhadya, Earth’s shadow or Bhubha is Chhadak or Grahana Karta. The ‘Vilambana’or the delay of time between the ‘Chhadya’and ‘Chhedak’ is known as ‘Chhanna’ or ‘graas’. Thus when Chandra is fully invisible, then the Lunar Eclipse is stated to be complete or ‘Sarvagraas’. If Chandra grahana is a ‘Khanda Grahana’ or a partial eclipse, then Prithvi’s shadow falls on Chandra to that extent.

Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse): When Chandra travels while in rotation between Surya and Prithvi and lies in the Southern direction under the level of Surya, that day  when Sun rays fall on the top portion of Chandra, that night is called as Amavasya since Chandra’s lower portion is invisible on Earth. It is on that Amavasya when Chandra comes in between Prithvi and Surya and Surya’s ‘bimba’ disappears at a point of time, that particular Amavasya is stated to the time of Surya Grahana (Solar Eclipse). As in the case of Lunar Eclipse, there might be Sarva graas or Khanda Graas of Solar Eclipse too. On Amavasya, Chandra’s Chhaya falls towards Prithvi and in that Chhaya Bhubhubhagh falls and Surya bimba disappears; the extent of disappearence denotes the full or partial Solar Eclipse. Maharshi Sanandana explained to Narada Muni the methodology of calculating the exact time and duration of the Eclipses as also the general impact on various other Grahas. The belief in Puranas that Rahu was responsible for the Eclipses as he was annoyed at the successful attempts made by Surya and Chandra to dismember him, although succeeded to secure ‘Amrit’ and as a result accomplished the status of Grahas, was not unfound; it is believed that Rahu was dismembered from one entity into two as Rahu and Ketu and Lord Brahma set up Rahu in the shadow of Chandra and Ketu in the shadow of Prithvi and appointed them as Grahas (Planets); while Rahu and Ketu were positioned as the shadows nearby to Surya and Chandra respectively and were thus stated to be responsible for the Eclipses. 

Dik Sadhana: If a concrete platform is made and a ‘Shankha’is erected at a central point, mark  a ‘Vrittha’ (circle) with twelve equi-distant portions from the centre drawn to the periphery, keep marking twelve ‘dots’after every two hours, observing Sun’s direction from the Sun-Rise point and the Sun-Fall, it is not difficult locate the Dishas/ Upa Dishas (directions), indicating  the twelve Rashis, [viz.Mesha (Aries), represented by Ram, Fire and Mars; Vrishabha, represented by Bull,  Earth,  and Venus; Mithuna (Gemini), represented by a Couple, Air and Mercury; Karkataka (Cancer), represented by Crab, Water and Moon; Simha (Leo) reprented by Lion, Fire and Sun; Kanya (Virgo) represented by Virgin, Earth and Mercury;Tula (Libra) represented by a Balance, Air and Venus; Vrischika (Scorpio) represented by Water and Mars; Dhanus (Saggitarius) represented by a Bow, Fire and Jupiter; Makara (Capricon) represented by Alligator, Earth and Saturn; Kumbha (Aquarius) represented by Pot, Air and Saturn and Meena (Pisces) represented by Fish, Water and Jupiter]. The Dashas and Upa Dashas respectively are North East (Ishana) representing Varuna or Water full of beneficial Energy;  East ( Poorva) ruled by Indra indicating for Authority and Contentment; South East (Agneya) represented by Agni / Fire and Energy; Dakshina (South) ruled by Yama and standing for Dharma and Death; South West (Niruti) ruled by Nocturnal Deity known for Sleep, Fame and Income; West (Paschim) is ruled by Varuna for Water/ Rain and ‘Karma’/ fate; North West (Vayavya) ruled by Vayu Deva standing for intellect, business and name; North (Kubera) known for prosperity and Career; Brahma is the Centre for Power and Creativity.

Jaataka Skandha’
It is stated that the Rashis from ‘Mesha’ constitute the limbs of Kaala Purusha’ in the order of head, face, hands, heart, stomach, thighs, ‘Vasti’ or urinary bladder, linga, knees, leg calves and two feet. Mangal, Shukra, Budha, Chandra, Surya, Budha, Shukra, Mangal, Guru Shani, and Guru are the Ruling Deities of the Rashis respectively as follows: Mesha-Vrisha-Mithun-Karka-Simha-Kanya-Tula-Vrischik-Dhanu-Makar-Kumbh-Meena Mangal-Venus-Budha-Chand-Surya-Budha-Shukra-Mangal- Guru- Shani- Shani-  Guru .
In the context of specific Rashi, Shad Vargas are calculated in terms of Hora (from Sun Rise to Sun set), Drekshana ( division of one third of a Rashi or a Varga), Navamamsha, Dwadashaamsha, and Trimshamsha (as each Rashi comprises thirty Amshas.), of which fifteen Amshas has one hora, ten Amshas make a drekshana, three and one third Amshas make a Navamamsha; (in other words, in each Raashi, there are nine Navamshas), two and half Amshas make one Dwadashamsha thus making twelve Dwadashamshas in a Rashi.Each Amsha is called a Trimshamsha. In malefic Rashis, first five Amshas are dominated by Mangal, the next five Amshas by Shani, the next eight Amshas by Brihaspati, the further seven Amshas by Budha and the last five Amshas by Shukra. In respect of ‘Sama’ (Even) Rashis, the reverse order is applicable viz. first five by Shukra, seven by Budha, then eight by Brihaspati, five by Shani, and finally five by Mangal.
 The Jnanaartha Chakra of Horas indicates that during the first half  or the fifteen Amshas, Mesha Rasi is governed by Ravi, Vrisha by Shukra, Mithun by Ravi, Karkataka by Chandra, Simha by Ravi, Kanya by Chandra,  Tula by Ravi, Vrischik by Chandra, Dhanu by Ravi, Makara by Chandra, Kumbha by Ravi and Meena by Chandra; where as during the second half of 15 to 30 Amshas in the Hora Chakra, Ravi is dominant among Vrisha, Karka, Kanya, Vrischik, Makar and Meena and Chanrda in the rest of the Raashis viz. Mesha, Mithuna, Simha, Tula, Dhanu and Kumbha. In respect of Triteeyaamsha, viz. Dreshkaana the dominating Grahas in the first part of 1-10 Amshas are as follows: Mangala in Mesha and Vrischik, Shukra  in Vrisha and Tula , Budha in Mithun and Kanya, Chandra in Karka, Surya in Tula, and Guru in nine and Twelve; during the period of eleven to twenty Amshas ot the middle phase, Surya is dominating in Mesha; Budha in Vrisha and Kumbha; Shukra in Mithuna and Makara, Mangal in Karka and Dhanu,Guru in Simha and Vrischik, Shani in Kanya and Tula; and Chandra in Meena; and finally during the Third and final Dreshkana ie from 21 to 30 Anshas, Guru is prominent in Mesha and Karka, Shani in Vrisha and Mithuna, Mangal in Simha and Meena, Shukra in Kanya and Kumbha, Budha in Tula and Makara, Chandra in Vrischik, and Surya in Dhanu.
Calculations in respect of Navaamsha Jnaana are exacting, since nine Amsha / Kalaas are involved from 3/20, 6/40, 10/0, 13/20, 16/40, 20/0, 23/20, 26/40 and 30/0; during these respective Amsha Kalaas, the juxta-positions of Raashi / Grihas are Mesha vs. Mangala (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra(4), Surya (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7) Mangala (8) and Guru (9); Vrisha vs. Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12), Mangala (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Ravi (5) and Budha (6); Mithuna Vs. Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11),  Guru (12), Mangal(1), Shukra (2) and Budha (3); Karka vs. Chandra (4), Ravi (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12); Simha vs. Mangal (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Surya(5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangala (8) and Guru (9); Kanya vs. Shani (10), Shani (11) Guru(12), Mangal(1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Ravi (5) and Budha (6); Tula vs. Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9); Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12), Mangala (1), Shukra (2), and Budha (3); Vrischika vs.Chandra (4), Ravi (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangala (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11) and Guru (12); Dhanu vs. Mangal (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Surya (5), Budha (6),Shukra (7), Mangala (8), and Guru (9); Makara vs. Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12), Mangala (1), Shukra (2), Budha (3), Chandra (4), Ravi (5), and Budha (6); Kumbha vs. Shukra (7), Mangal (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11), Guru (12) , Mangala (1), Shukra (2), and Budha (3); and Meena vs. Chandra (4), Ravi (5), Budha (6), Shukra (7), Mangala (8), Guru (9), Shani (10), Shani (11) and Guru (12).Similar calculations may be done in respect of Dwadashaamsha Chakra has to be calculated in the juxtaposition of Raashis and Grahaas with the difference that instead Navamshi or nine Amshas, the reference is for Twelve Anshaas in the slots of 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 27 and 30. This is how Rashi of a native, hora, Dreshkaan, Navamaamsha, Dwadashaamsha and Trimshaamsha are worked out and the process is defined as Shadvarga.The Six of the Twelve Raashis viz. vrisha, Mesha, Dhanu, Karka, Mithun and Makara are known as Raatri Sanjnaatak as the are active in the nights, mainly; they are also known as ‘Prushtodaya’ since they are from the hind side of the body, excepting in respect of Mithuna. The rest of the Rashis are Dina Sanjnas and are active during the day-time (Meena Rashi is however Ubahyodaya) and the rest are of Seershodaya category. As regards the aspect of beneficient and malefic nature, Mesha, Mithuna, Simha, Tula, Dhanu and Kumbha are of Krura (Cruel) nature and the other Grahas are of Soumya / Soft nature. The Anga Sthhanaa or the predominant body-part of Mesha is Mastak (head), Vrisha is Mukha/ Face, Mithuna is shoulder, Karka Hridaya, Simha (Stomach), Kanya (kamara / waist)), Tula ( bladder), Vrischik (Linga), Dhanu (Uru / thighs), Makara ( Jaanu/ knees), Kumbha (jangha / shin ) and Meena is feet.As regards the Sthira ( Stable) or Chara (mobile) nature of the Rashis, Mesha, Karaka, Tula and Makara are of ‘chara’ nature while Vrisha, Simha,Vrischika and Kumbha are stable Rashis, but Mithuna, Kanya, Dhanu, and Meena are of both Swabhavas. Surya is in Ucchha (exalted position) in Mesha with ten Amshas, Chandra is exalted in Vrisha with 3 Ashas, Mangala in Makara with 28 Amshas, Budha in Kanya with 15 Amshas, Guru in Karka with 5 Amshas,  Shukra in Meena with 27 Amshas and Shani in Tula with 20 Amshas in Paramoccha or highly exalted position. As regards the direction of the Rashis, Mesha, Simha and Dhanu are in the East; Vrisha, Kanya and Makara in South; Mithuna, Tula and Kumbha westward and Karka, and Vrischik and Meena northward. In Chara position, East Navamaamsha is Vargotthama; the fifth or Madhyama Navamaamsha is the best among the Sthira or stable positions; and in dwisvabhava the last Navamaamsha is the best of Vargottamaas. Talking of Lagnas, these are of twelve ‘Bhaavaas’. The Mula Trikonas or Corner Triangles are stated to be Surya’s Simha, Chandra’s Vrisha, Mangala’s Mesha, Budha’s Kanya, Guru’s Dhanu, Shukra’s Tula and Shani’s Kumbha. Chaturtha and Ashtabhavas are called Chaturasras or squares. The Navama and Panchama are called Trikonas. Dwadasha, Asthama and Shashtha are called Trikas; Laghna Chaturtha, Saptama and Dashama are Kendras (Center). The ‘dwipadas’(bipeds), Jala charaas (water borne), Keeta (worms) and Pashu or animals are powerful in Kendra; in other words, Dwipadas in Lagna, Jalachara in Chaturtha, Keeta in Seventh and Pashu in Daswa or tenth become powerful. From Kendra, the positions at 2, 5, 8 and 11 are known as ‘Panaphar’; the subsequent positions at 3, 6, 9 and 12 are named ‘Aapovilma’. Mesha is ‘Rakta Varna’or of blood-red colour, Vrisha Rashis colour is Sweta (white), Mithuna has the green colour of a Parrot, Karka’s colour is rose like, Simha is Dhumra or grey, Kanya Raashi’s colour is Wheatish, Tula’s colour is Chitra or mixed, Vrischika has black colour, Dhanu has yellow colour, Makara is of Pinga /orange colour, Kumbha has Babhru or blue-like colour and Meena has ‘Swaccha’ or transparent varna. Surya Deva is known as Kaalapurusha’s Atma or Soul, Chandra is the Manas or heart, Mangal is Parakrama or Valour, Budha is Vani or the power of Speech, Guru is Jnaana (Knowledge) and Happiness, Shukra is desire and Shani is sorrow. Surya and Chandra are the epitomes of a King, Mangal is Senapati or Head of Defence Forces, Budha is Raja Kumar or the Prince, Brihaspati and Shukra are the Ministers and Shanaischar is ‘Doota’ (Servant). Having given the colours of Raashis, the Varnas or colours of Grahas are given as Surya of Tamra (copper), Chandra of Shukla or white, Mangal of Rakta or blood, Budha of green colour, Brihaspati of ‘peeta’ or yellow, Shukra is of Chitra and Shaneshwara is of black colour. Agni, Jala, Kartikeya, Hari, Indra, Indrani and Brahma are the Deities of Nava Grahas. Surya, Shukra, Mangal, Rahu, Shani, Chandra, Budha and Brihaspati are the Rulers of Purva, Agneya, Dakshina, Nairuti, Paschima, Vayavya, Uttara and Ishana respectively. Ksheena or diluted Chandra, Surya, Mangal, and Shani are ‘Paapa- grahas’ (malevolent); Budha and Shani are Napumsaka (eunuchs); Shukra and Chandra are Stree (effiminate) Grahas, and the rest of Grahas viz. Ravi, Mangala and Guru are Purushas. Mangal, Budha, Guru, Shukra and Shani are the counter-part Masters of the Tatwas of Agni, Bhumi, Aakaash, Jala, and Vaayu. Shukra and Guru are from the Brahmana Varna; Bhauma and Ravi are Kshatrias, Chandra is the Master of Vaishva Varna and Budha is the Head of Sudra Varnas. Shani is the Head of Antyajas (the least important of Varnas) and Rahu is the Master of Mlecchas. Chandra, Surya and Brihaspati are of Sathva Guna; Budha and Shukra of Rajo Guna, and Mangal and Shani are of Tamo guna. Surya is the Master of Devatas, Chandra of Jala, Mangala of Agni, Budha is the Master of Kreeda Vihara or Sports, Brihaspati of Bhumi, Shukra of Wealth, Shanaischara of Shayana or Sleep and Rahu the Master of ‘Usar’ or Chemeleons. Surya and the following Grahas viz. Chandra, Mangal, Budha, Guru, Shukra and Shani wear the respective Vastras (Clothes) viz. coarse, new, burnt, wet, medium, strong and worn ones. The respective Grahas from Surya as above are the ‘Dhatus’of copper, diamonds, gold, glass, silver, pearls and iron.The beneficiaries of the dhatus are bones in respect of Surya; shronita (egg- developer of Virility) from ‘Manis’or Jewels in respect of Chandra; ‘Majja or bone-marrow from Gold in the case of Mangala; twacha or skin from glass in respect of Budha, ‘Vasaa’ or fat from silver in the case of Guru; ‘Veerya’ from pearls in the case of Shukra and ‘snaayu’ or sinews from loha or metal/iron as from Shani. Similarly Shani, Shukra, Mangala, Chandra, Budha and Guru are the Masters of the Seasons of Shishira, Vasanta, Greeshma, Varsha, Sharad and Hemanta.

Graha Kaalamaan: One ‘Ayana’ or six months,‘Muhurta’or two ‘Ghadis’, ‘Ahoratra’, ‘Ritu’ or two ‘maasaas’ or months, ‘maasa’, ‘Paksha’ or fortnight and ‘Varsha’ or a Year-these are the Kaalamaanas of Grahas commencing from Surya. These are also the ‘Rasaas’or tastes of the Grahas viz. Katu /Mircha (Surya); Lavana (Salt) (Chandra), Tikta or bitter (Mangal); ‘Mishra’ or mixed tastes (Budha); ‘Mathura’or sweet (Guru); ‘Amla’or sour (Shukra) and ‘Kashaya’or herbal decoction (Shani). Swaabhaavika  Maitri of Grahas (Natural Compatibility): To Surya, Mitras or important friends are Chandra, Mangal and Guru; Budha is a normal friend but Shukra and Shani are enemies; to Chandra, significant friends are Budha and Surya, neutral friends are Mangala, Guru, Shukra and Shani but has no Shatrus at all; Mangala’s very good friends are Chandra, Surya and Guru, his normal friends are Shukra and Shani and enemy is Budha; to Budha, very good friends are Shukra and Surya, normal friends are Mangala, Guru and Shani but Chandra is shatru; to Guru, Surya, Mangala and Chandra are very good friends, Shani is a neutral friend but Budha and Shukra are enemies; To Shukra good friends are Budha and Shani, neutrals or Mangala and Guru but Surya and Chandra are enemies; Shani’s  very good friends are Shukra and Budha, Guru is neutral tohim but enemies are Surya, Chandra and Mangala.

 Mataantara Maitri of Grahas (Compromised Compatibility): Surya is a friend of Brihaspati in normalcy, so is Chandra with Guru and Budha, Mangal with Shukra and Budha, Budha with all the Grahas excepting Surya, Guru is friendly with all excepting Mangala, Shukra is friendly ordinarily excepting Chandra and Ravi, and Shani is friendly with others excepting Mangala, Chandra and Ravi. Tatkaalika Maitri among Grahas: (Temporary Compatibility): Depending on the time/ positioning of Grahas in second and twelfth Houses; or third and eleventh Houses; or fourth and tenth Houses, even natural enemies might become friendly on temporary basis. Suppose Surya is in the First House and Budha, Shukra and Mangal are in second, third and fourth Houses respectively, then Surya would become temporary friends and Chandra, Guru and Shani become Shatrus.Similarly, Chandra becomes friendly with Shani, Guru, Shukra and Mangala if they happen to be in the third, fourth, eleventh and tenth Houses and others viz. Surya and Budha become Shatrus. There would be temporary friendships and enimities among other Grahas as well.
            Nakshatra Phala (Star-wise birth results): Readings as per Nakshatra (Star)-wise birth of various human beings were narrated by Sanandana Maharshi to Narada Muni as follows: Those born in Ashwini are handsome and fond of wearing ornaments. Bharani-born are capable to perform and speak truthfully. Krittika-born tends to eatless, steady-minded, and conversational but have soft corner for other women. Rohini born are wealthy, Mrigashitaites are luxurious; Ardra-born violent, stubborn and criminal-minded; Punarvasu born are even-minded, and well behaved but suffer bad health; Persons born in Pushya Nakshatra are imaginative like Poets and are happy-go-lucky. Those persons who are born in Aslesha are rude, obstinate, ungrateful, low-minded and uncouth. Magha born are rich, devoted and happy. If born in Purva Phalguni, the persons are charitable, adjustable, sociable and conversationalists. Born of Uttara Phalguni are wealthy and comfortable. Hasta born are shameless, mean-minded and crooks. Persons born in Chitra are well dressed, beautiful and charming. Swati born are virtuous, moralistic, kind hearted and charitable. Vishakhaites are greedy, deceptive, cunning and harsh. Born of Anuradha, the persons are fond of travel and non-resident. Jyeshtha born are principled and contented. Persons born in Mula Nakshatra are wealthy, happy and helpful. If born of Purvashadha and Uttarashadha, the persons concerned are happy- go- lucky and hearty /disciplined and virtuous respectively. Shravanites are rich, happy and famous; while born of Dhanishta, the persons concerned are donors, wealthy and courageous. A person born of Shatabhisha, the persons win over opponents but are susceptible of bad practices. Born of Purvabhadra, the persons concerned are heavily prone to feminine influence and rich; while Uttrabhadraites are independent, assertive, speech-makers, attractive and joyful. Finally, those born in Revati are energetic, enterprising, rich and pure-hearted.

Meshaadi Chandra Raashi Janma Phala: Those born in Mesha Raashi are passionate, enterprising and grateful; Vrisha Raasi: Charming, charity-minded and tolerant; Mithun Raashai: Comfort-loving and diplomatic; Karka Raashi: Controlled by opposite sex and short statured; Simha Raashi: Egoistic, enterprising, stable-minded and comfort-oriented; Kanya Raashi:  Soft-natured, virtuous and well-meaning; Tula Raashi: Learned, broad-minded and wealthy; Vrischika Raashi: Loka Pujya, unhealthy and injury-prone; Dhanu Raashi: Poets, Architects, Artistic and wealthy; Makara Raashi: Unenthusiastic to perform, wasteful, vagabond but attractive; Kumbha Raashi: Desirous of possesing ‘Para Stree’ and ‘Para Dhan’; and Meena Raashi: Artistic, dreamy and easy-loving.

Suryaadi Graha-Raashi- Phala: If Surya is in Mesha Raashi, the ‘Jaataka’ would be famed; in Vrisha Raashi the person would be a woman hater; in Mithuna the person is rich; Karka stands for angry nature; Simha for ignorance; Kanya for a Poet; Tila for an Artist; Vrischik for dhanavaan; Dhanu for Loka Pujyata; Makar for a miser; Kumbha for poverty, and Meena is unhappiness. If Mangal is in Simha the Jataka is of poverty; in Karka, the person is rich; in Swaraashi ie. Mesha / Vrischika the Jaataka is Bhramana sheela or fond of travel; in Budha Raashi (Kanya-Mithun), the person is full of gratitude; in Guru (Dhanu- Meena) fame and name; in Shukra (Vrisha-Tula) desire for opposite sex; Makara for good progeny and prosperity; and in Kumbha an unhappy, wicked and illusive nature. If Budha is in Surya’sSimha Raasi, the native is a woman hater; Chandra Raashi in Karaka, the person would be a disliker of relatives; in Mangala raashi (Mesha Vrischika) suffers poverty ; in Budha raashi (Mithun -Kanya), the person becomes intelligent and rich;  the native in Guru Raashi (Dhanu/Meena) achieves fame; in Shukra Raashi (Vrisha-Tula) the person concerned the native gets rich by wife and children; and in Shani Raashi (Makara –Kumbha) goes in debt.
            If Guru is in Simha, the native becomes Senapati; in Karka becomes rich by wife and children; in Mangal (Mesha-Vrischik) he/she would be wealthy and forgiving; in Budha (Mithuna-Kanya) the native would by wealthy by ‘astraas’ etc. ; in Own Raashi (Dhanu-Meena), becomes District-Head; in Shukra’s Raashi (Vrisha-Tula) the nbative becomes rich and happy; and in Shani (Makar-Kumbha), the person becomes the Poor and in Kumbha rich. If Shukra is in Simha attains prosperity by wife; in Karka becomes arrogant and unhappy; in Mangal (Mesha-Vrichak) receives hatred from relations; in Budha (Mithun-Karka) becomes rich and sinless; in Guru (Dhanu-Meena) becomes scholarly; and in own (Vrisha- Tula) becomes rich and forgiving; and finally in Shani (Makara-Kumbhja) gets disgraced by woman or opposite sex. If Shani is in Simha, the native becomes poor because of children and lack of money; in Mangal (Mesha-Vrischika), the native becomes friendless and poor; in Budha (Mithun-Kanya) the person turns out to be a Pradhaan Rakshak /Chief of Security; in Guru Raashi (Dhanu-Meena) the person becomes rich and happy due to life-partner and offspring; in Shukra (Vrisha-Tula) becomes a King anf finally in the own Raashi (Makara-Kumbha), the native would be the Territorial Head.
Graha Drishti on Chandra: Maharshi Sanandana further explained to Narada Muni the ‘drishthi phal’or the visionary outcome of ‘Nava Grahas’on Chandra positioned in various ‘Raashis’; for instance, the drishti of Grahas stationed in Mesha Stitha Chandra results in varying results like Mangala drishti yields ‘Bhupa’(King); Budha drishti gives ‘Jna’or Pandita, Guru’s drishti gives ‘Guni’; Shukra drishti provides ‘Chora Swabhava’ or the characteristic of a thief and Shani’s drishti creates ‘Aswa’ or poverty. On Vrishascha Chandra, the Graha drishti yields Nirdhana from Mangala, Chora Swabhava from Budha, and Raja Swabhava from Guru, ‘Pandita’ Swabhava from Shukra; and Preshya / Bhritya Swabhava or of a servant from Shani. (Surya drishti is ‘anukta’ or unknown and may be considered as the drishti of Shani). The ‘drishti phalas’are to be reckoned accordingly as per the above illustrations. Similarly, the ‘drishti’of various Grahas on Chandra in terms of ‘Navaamsha’ and the resultant ‘Phalas’might also be identified.
Maharshi Sanandana described various other aspects of Jyotisha to Narada Muni ranging from the fixation of muhurtas like agricultural operations (Seed-spreadings, tilling, crop-cuttings), Roga-Vimukti Snaanas or bathings to terminate illnesses, ‘Nrityaarambha’ or maiden dances (good Nakshatras being Uttara Phalguni, Uttaraashaadha, Uttara Bhadrapada, Anuraadha, Jeyshtha, Dhanishta, Shatabhisha, Pushya, Hasta and Revati); ‘Yatra’ or travel Nakshatras viz. Ashwini, Krittika, Mrigashira, Pushya, Moola, Chitra, Shravana, the Three Uttaras, Purva phalguni, Magha,  Vishaka and Dhanishta (‘varjita’ or avoidable nakshatras are Rohini, Jeyshtha, Punarvasu, Swati, Revati, Hasta, Anuradha, Purvabhadra, Bharani and Aslesha) etc. Muhurthas for Garbhadaana Samskara, Pumsavana / Seemantotrayana, Jaata Karma/Naama karma, Anna Praasana, Chookaakarana, Saamaanya Kshura Karma, Upanayana or Gayatri Mantropaasana, Vivahas (weddings), Vadhu Pravesha or maiden entry of brides in the homes of husbands, Deva Pratishtha, Griha Nirmaana, Vaastu vishaya, Griha Pravesha or Entry of new residence, commencement of Deva Karyas like ‘Vrataararambha’.

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