All this is discussed in detail in The Guru Tradition.
The six months from the day the sun turns from the tropic of Cancer. For Sravana and Taisya, see Chapter 13. Part Six.
Mid January to mid- July.
Mid- April to mid June.
Mid- February to Mid- March.
Mid- July to mid-January.
Mid-December to mid-January. The Paramaguru is speaking of the custom now obtaining in the South, particularly in Tamil Nadu.
"Nanmarai "means the four Vedas.
"One wearing ear-studs. " (Siva).
Again, the Paramaguru is referring to marriages in the South, particularly, Tamil Nadu.
The statemant reads odd in English but it conveys the idea of a man naturally developing from immaturity to the stage of wisdom and enlightenment.
If daytime is divided into five parts, this will be the second part.
Gruel - in the south it is usually made of broken rice.
"HOLDING YOUR BREATH " :
This is a literal translation of the Tamil idiom the meaning of which is explained in the first sentence of the following para. The English idiom "to hold one's breath" of "catch one's breath"means to stop breathing for a moment because of fear or shock. But when we further read the Paramaguru on one-pointedness of the mind we realise that the Tamil idiom is not entirely different from the English.
Lords of yogins.
It is a declaration by the Brahmins present at a function that the rite about to be performed will prove to be auspicious.
Bhagavadgita, 18. 46
These terms are explained elsewhere in this part.
For a general background, please see here