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श्री रुद्रम् SRI RUDRAM

चतुर्थोऽनुवाकः Anuvakam 4
Shiva Statue at Vedal
 


Mantra  1

नम आव्याधिनीभ्यो विविध्यन्तीभ्यश्च वो नमः |

Meaning:

आव्याधिनीभ्यः-   Of the form of women capable of attacking on all four sides,   विविध्यन्तीभ्यश्च- and women capable of attacking in different ways,     वः-   to you,      नमः-  prostration.

In this Anuvakam, as in the previous Anuvakam, Bhagavan is worshipped as being in all forms (Sarvaatmaka:).

Mantra  2

नम उगणाभ्यस्तृँहतीभ्यश्च वो नमः |

Meaning:

उगणाभ्यः-  Of the form of superior groups like Sapta Matrukaas,      तृँहतीभ्यः-   and fearful Devatas adept in torturing, like Durga,  वः-  to you,   नमः-  prostration.

Mantra  3

नमो गृत्सेभ्यो गृत्सपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः |

Meaning:

गृत्सेभ्यः-   Of the form of those who are attached to sense objects,   गृत्सपतिभ्यः च-  and those who protect them,    वः-   to you,   नमः-  prostration.

गृत्साः- Alternative meaning- intelligent persons living on power of intellect.

Mantra  4

नमो व्रातेभ्यो व्रातपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः

Meaning:

व्रातेभ्यः-      Of the form of persons of different occupations,    व्रातपतिभ्यश्च-      and those who protect them,    वः-  to you,     नमः-  prostration.

Mantra  5

नमो गणेभ्यो गणपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः

Meaning:

गणेभ्यः-   Being Pramathaganas (Bhutaganas accompanying Parameswara),    गणपतिभ्यश्च-   and protectors of those Ganas,   वः-  to you,     नमः-  prostration.

Mantra  6

नमो विरूपेभ्यो विश्वरूपेभ्यश्च वो नमः

Meaning:

विरूपेभ्यः-  Being Ganas with repulsive appearance,       विश्वरूपेभ्यः-     Ganas of different forms like elephant, horse etc.    वः-  to you,     नमः-  prostration.

Alternatively, virupa: can mean the Formless and visvarupa:, having many forms imposed upon him.

Mantra  7    

नमो महद्भ्यः क्षुल्लकेभ्यश्च वो नमः-

Meaning:

महद्भ्यः-   Being great persons having Siddhis like Anima,   क्षुल्लकेभ्यश्च-   and persons with no such attributes,   वः-  to you,  नमः-  prostration.

Mantra  8

नमो रथिभ्योऽरथेभ्यश्च वो नमः-

Meaning:

रथिभ्यः-   Of the form of those sitting in the chariots,    अरथेभ्यः च-    and those with no chariots (and walking on foot),   वः-  to you, नमः-  prostration.

Mantra  9

नमो रथेभ्यो रथपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः

Meaning:

To you, of the form of chariots, and the masters sitting in the chariots, prostration.

(As the meanings of words are easily understandable from this 9th mantra upto 17th mantra, they have not been explained in two commentaries. Meaning has been given only in the commentary of Bhattabhaskara. Following that, general meaning of mantra has been given here.)

Mantra  10

नमस्सेनाभ्यः सेनानिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of armies and army commanders, prostration.

Mantra  11

नमः क्षत्तृभ्यः संग्रहीतृभ्यश्च वो नमः  ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of those who run chariots properly, and those who stop the horses in the chariots, prostration.

Mantra  12

नमस्तक्षभ्यो रथकारेभ्यश्च वो नमः ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of carpenters and builders of chariots, prostration.

Mantra  13

नमः कुलालेभ्यः कर्मारेभ्यश्च वो नमः ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of potters and blacksmiths, prostration.

Mantra  14

नमः पुञ्जिष्टेभ्यो निषादेभ्यश्च वो नमः ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of those who catch birds and fishermen catching fish, prostration.

Mantra  15

नम इषुकृद्भ्यो धन्वकृद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of good fabricators of arrows and bows, prostration.

Mantra  16

नमो मृगयुभ्यः श्वनिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of hunters of animals, and those who hold dogs, chained in neck, prostration.

Mantra  17

नमः श्वभ्यः श्वपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।

Meaning:

To you, of the form of dogs, and protectors of dogs, prostration.

Explanation:

Sayana bhashyam (commentary) states that the second Anuvakam starting with ‘ Namo Hiranyabaahave ’ is meant primarily to worship the many forms assumed sportingly by Parameswara; the third Anuvakam starting with Namas sahamaanaaya  is aimed mainly at adoring the forms of thieves taken by Parameswara; this fourth Anuvakam starting with Nama Aavyaadinibhya: draws attention to the many animal forms assumed by Sri Parameswara.

It was described in the 26 mantras starting with Ishumadbhya: that Sri Parameswara alone has taken the form of the entire universe with living and non-living beings. His being the soul of all creation is going to be described in the mantras from Namo Jyeshthaya cha (6th Anuvakam). This goes to establish Sivaadvaitam (Principle that there is nothing other than Siva), i.e. Atmaadvaitam (Principle that there is nothing other than Soul). That Atma (Soul) possesses Samasta chetanaadvaitam (Principle of uniquely pervading all living beings) is established by many authoritative passages like Aham Brahmaasmi, Tattvamasi etc. It has been explained in detail in Brahma Mimamsa that since Atma is the sub-stratum of all superimposed non-living objects and since sub-stratum alone is the true form of the superimposed object, as shown in Suktirajata, Atma possesses also Samasta Achetanaadvaitam (Principle that Atma is nothing other than all non-living objects).

As Sarvaadvaitam (Principle of all in one Atma) has thus been established and as the import of this passage is that alone, there is no scope for doubting as to how Sruti could teach the unity of the Supreme Iswara with lowly creatures like dog and hunter. For the terms svabhya:, svapatibhya: etc., the meaning is not that the bodies of dog and Parameswara are the same. The meaning however is that the consciousness pervading in the dogs body and the consciousness in Parameswara is the same. It must be understood that if the term sva means the body of dog, the intent is the consciousness, which is the sub-stratum and not the dogs body, which is superimposed. In the Sun, reflected in Ganga and ponds, Gangas holiness or the defect of liquor does not attach to it. Similarly, in the Consciousness of Self pervading the bodies of lowly creatures like dog, the defects of lowly creatures or the goodness of higher creatures does not attach to it. This is borne out in the Gita sloka,

विद्याविनयसंपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि ।

शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः ॥

(The wise have equal outlook with a brahmana endowed with learning and humility, a cow, an elephant, a dog and the eater of dogs flesh.)

 And other passages like

किं गङगाम्बुनि बिम्बितेम्बरमणौ चण्डालवापीपयः-

पूरेष्यन्तरमस्ति काञ्चनघटीमृत्कुम्भयोश्चान्तरे ॥.

(Is there any difference between the Suns image reflected in the waters of Ganga and in the pond of a chandala? Is there any difference between the space inside a golden pot and that in a clay pot?).

For this fourth Anuvaka containing 14 mantras, Rishi is Durvasa; chandas is Mahavirat; Devata is Sambhu.

Dhyanam:

भस्मोद्धूलितसर्वाङ्गं जटामण्डलमण्डितम् ।

ध्यायेद्देवं वृषारूढं गणेश्वरयुतं हरम् ॥

One must meditate on Hara, who has Vibhuti (bhasma-sacred ash) smeared all over the body, decorated with tuft of matted hair, accompanied by Ganesvara and mounted on Vrishabha.

Chanting of this mantra is capable of granting relief from severe diseases like tuberculosis, fever, special fever related to humours, leprosy etc.


Translated by: P R Kannan, Navi Mumbai from Commentary in Tamil by
Sri R. MUTHUKRISHNA SASTRI,
Former Editor, Hitabhashini,
Thanjavur
&
Dr.S.SRINIVASA SARMA
Srimatham, Kanchipuram