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Kurmavatara

 

Essence Of
Kurma Purana

 

 

4    Brahmana Dharmas, Ashrama Vidhana and Abhinnata (Indivisibility) of Tri Murtis

Kurma Bhagavan described to Maharshis that after the Sanatana Srishti by Paramatma, Brahma took up the task of Srishti of ‘Charaachara Jagat’and created nine Maanasa Putras or Mind-borne Sons viz. Marichi, Bhrigu, Angira, Pulastya, Pulah, Kratu, Daksha, Atri, and Vasishtha. The Four Vedas of Ruk-Yajur-Saama and Atharva constituted the natural appearance of Brahma. At the beginning of Srishti, Trigunas of Satwa-Rajasa and Tamasika were non-existent; there was no Raaga-Dweshas or Desire-Hatred Syndrome and no interplay of ‘Arishadvargas’or the Six Basic Enemies of Beings viz. Kama (desire), Krodha (anger), Lobha (greed), Moha (infatuation), Mada (arrogance) and Matsara (jealousy). With the passage of time the concepts of ‘Swadharma’and ‘Paradharma’accentuated the class-distinction and Brahmana Dharma was defined as :

Yajanam Yaajanam Daanam Brahmanasya pratigraham,

Ahyaapanam cha adhyayanam Shasta Karmaani Dwijotthama/

(The six major duties of Brahmanas were stated to be the Performance of Yajnaas, enabling and encouraging the Yajna Karmas, giving as also receiving ‘Daanaas’; Adhyayana or Reciting Scriptures and Adhyaapana or Teaching them). Daana, Adhyayana and Yajna are the common features of Kshatriyas and Vaishyas while Kshatriyas have the duties of Law-Order -Defence as Vaishyas perform Business, Agriculture, Trading and Accounting. The other categories are to specialise in Shilpa, Crafts and such other professions.

 As regards Ashrama Dharmaas viz. Garhastya-Vanaprastya-Sanyasa and Brahmacharya, Kurma Bhagavan ordained the  following:

Agnayotithishurushaa Yajno Daanam Suraarchanam,

Gruhastasya Samaasena Dharmoyam Munipungavaah/

Homo Mula phalaashitwam Swaadhyaastapa eva cha,

Samvibhaago yathaanyaayam Dharmoyam Vanavaasinam/

Bhaiksaashanam cha Mounitwam Tapo dhyaanamviseshatah,

Samyajnaanam cha vairaagyam Dharmoyam Bhikshukey matah/

Bhikshaachaaryaacha shusrushaa Guroh Swaadhyaaya eva cha,

Sandhyaa karmaagni Kaaryaacha Dharmoyam Brahmachaarinam/

(Grihastya Dharma mainly entails Upasana of Agnis viz. Garhapatya, Aahavaniya, Dakshinaagni; Atithi Seva; Yagna-Daana- Deva Pujas form  the core of Brahmana Vidhi. Havana, Kanda mula phala sevana, Swaadhyaaya and Tapas are the Vaana Prastha Dharmaas; Bhiksha bhojana, Mouna Vrata, Tapa, Samyakm Dhyaana or Composite worship of Deities, Samyak Jnaana and Vairagya or other worldliness are Sanyasa Dharrmas. Brahmachaari Dharmas include Bhiksha Bhojana, Guru Seva, Swaadhyaaya, Sandhyaa karma and Agni Karyas. While annotating Grihasta Dharma, Kurma Bhagavan clarified that sleeping with one’s own wife-sujbect to specified qualifications was to be concerned as  Brahmacharya itself :

Rithu kaalaa –bhigaamitwam Swadaareshu na chaanyatah,

Parvarjyam Grihastasya Brahmacharyamudaa hritam/

Also, Kurma Deva proclaimed:

Vedaabhyaasonvaham Shaktyaa Shraaddham chaatithi pujanam,

Grihastasya Paro Dharma Devataabhyarchanam tathaa/

Trayaanaamaashramaanaam tu Grihastho yoniruchtatey,

Anyey tamupajeevanti tasmaancchreyaan Grihaashrami/

(Grihasta Ashrama is considered the seed of the Four  Ashramas and the most significant); more so, the ‘Purusharthaas’ of human beings are Dharma-Artha-Kaama-Mokshaas and hence the importance of this Ashrama.) But the common requirements of all the Ashrams are:

Kashamaa Damo Dayaa Daanamalobhastyaaga Eva cha,

Aarjivam  chaanasuya cha Tirthaanusaranam tathaa/

Satyam Santosha Aastikyam Shraddhaa chendriya nigrahah,

Devataabhyarchanam Pujaa Brahmanaanaam Viseshitah/

Ahimsaa priyavaa ditwamapaishunyamakaltataa,

Samaasikamimam Dharmam Chaturvarnerbraveen Manuh/  

(Kshama or patience, Daya or compassion, Daada or charity, Alobha  or non-greediness, Tyaga or sacrifice, Arjiva /softness of speech and behaviour, Anasuya or lack jealousy / large heartednesss; Tirtha Sevana, Satya or Truthfulness, Santosha  or Happiness / contentment; Aastikata  or Attachment to Vedas and Scriptures; Shraddha or devotion; Jitendriatwa or overcoming of Physical attractions; Deva Puja, Brahmana Puja, Ahimsa / Non-Violence, Madhura Bhashana or nice manner of conversation and Paapa Rahitya or general attitude of sinlessness). In fact the First Manu named Swayambhu Manu prescribed the above noble traits/ common features of all the Human Beings irrsepective of the Chaturvarnaas. Among Brahmacharis, there again are  of two categories viz. Upakurvaan and Naishthika Brahma tatpara; Brahmacharis learn  and  recite Vedas and then enter into Grihastaashrama are called Upakuyravaans while those who always remained with Guru are  called Naishtika Brahmacharis.  Again Grihastis are of two kinds viz. Udaaseenas and Saadhakaas; the former Grihastis lead a virtuous life and simultaneously take up  family responsibilities too are Sadhakas; while those who leave away the Pitruruna, Devaruna, Rishiruna besides leave family, money and social obligations and remain targetted only at Moksha  are Udaseenas. Likewise, Sanyasis are of three categories: Jnaana Sanyasis or those  Veda Sanyasis or Bhoutika Sanyasis; Bhoutika Sanyasis in which Bhavana is important, while Veda Sanyasis are of Sankhya or Yoga practitioners;  and Karma Sanyasis or the  performer of the prescribed karmas or deeds.

Singularity of Tri Murthis:  Depending on the emphasis of the Satwa-Rajas-Tamasa Gunas of the Eternal and Unique Paramatma, three Murtis were formed as Brahma-Vishnu and Maheshwara:

Tistrastu Murtayah prokta Brahma Vishnu Maheswaraah,

Rajah Satwa Tamoyogaat Parasya Paramatmanah/

Anyonyayamanuraktaastey hyanonyamupa jeevinah,

Anyonyam pranataashchaiva leelayaa Parameshvaraah/

Braahmi Maaheshwari chaiva tathaivaakshara bhavanaa,

Tristrastu Bhavana Rudrey vartantey satatam Dwijaah/

Pravartatey mayyajastramaadyaa chaakshara bhaavanaa,

Dwitiya Brahmanah proktraa Devasyaakshara bhaavanaa/ 

Aham chaiva Maha Devo na bhinnou paramaarthatah,

Vibhajya swecchhayaatmaanam sontaraameshwarah sthitah/

Ttrailokya makhilam Srushtim Sadevaasura maanushaam,

Purushaha Paratovyaktaad Brahmatwam samupamagat/

Tasmaad Brahmaa Mahadevo  Vishnurvishweshvarah Parah,

Ekaikssyaiva  Smritaastitrastanuh Karyavashaat Prabho/

Tasmaat sarva prayatnena Vandyaah Pujyaah prayatnatah,

Yadicchedachiraat sthaanam yattanmokshaakhya mavyayam/   

(Paramatma materialised Trimurtis on the basis of Satwa-Rajo-Tamo Gunas for the three basic responsibilities of Srishti-Sthiti-Samhara; the Three Profiles are dependent on each other, transferable to each other, interested and involved  with each other in fulfilling their tasks; they also greet each other, exchange and also supplement each other’s  thoughts and deeds. Indeed they are indivisible. Also, Rudra is interactive with the inherent thoughts of Brahmi, Maheswari and Akshara / Vaishnavi. From his side said Bhagavan Vishnu / Kurma Deva that the thoughts of ‘A’kshara were spontaneous and of the second Letter of the word Akshara denoted Brahmi and so on. As far as Vishnu and Maheshwara were concerned there indeed was no duplication whatsoever.  They were mutually and freely exchangeable, divisible yet wholly singular, mystifying and confusing and were indeed one and the same. It was the same Swarupa of Bhagavan who was like all the three who were close-knit! Indeed all three Murtis are worthy of worship and thus the need for attaining any one of them is similar to realise them all.



Evolution of Brahmanda (the Golden Egg) and popular features of the Supreme Architect

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