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Essence Of
Dharma Sindhu
18    UPANAYANA

Anupaneeta Dharmaas: Upanayana is clear watershed in the life of a Brahmana.  Praagupanayata- Kaamaachara Kaama Vaada Kaama bhakshaa, Tena mutrapureeshotsargaadaavaachamanaadyaa –chaaro naasti/ Laghupaataka hetulashunaparyushitocchishthaadi bhakshaney doshaabhaavah/  (Before the Upanayana Samskaara, a person was in the practice of unbridled behaviour of speech, action, eating habits, following the required discipline  in cleaning body parts and of purification, let alone ignoring minor blemishes of eating and drinking forbidden food like garlic-mixed, left over and polluted varieties; resorting to casual lies and carrying tales etc. Even meat-eating, contacting women in menses, and keeping company to chandalas. Indeed there are atonements possible like Snaana , Aachamana or sipping water thrice and oshtha marjana shuddhi for sins like for touching and contacting Rajaswalaasetc. But after Upanayana, wanton misdeeds demand far srtingent Prayaschitthas and that is how a Brahman by birth would become a ‘Dwija’ or twice born after the Upanayana Samskaara. Definition of Upanayana: Guhyotta karmanaa yena sameepam neeyatey Guroh, Baalo Vedaaya tadyogaad Baalasyopanayam Viduh/ ( Upanayana literally means that a Guru sits  in the  physical and   visual  presence of a boy and teaches Vedas and such Yogaas in the form of Gayatri Mantra). Those Gurus who perform Upanayana are defined as: Pitaivopanayet Putram tadabhaavey PithuPitaa, Tadabhave Pitrur bhraataa tadabhave tu Sodarah/ Tadabhavey Sagotra sapindaah tadabhavey Maatulaadayo Sagotra Sapindaah, Tadabhavey Asapindasagotrajaah/ Sarvaabhaavey Shrotriyah/ (Father, Paternal Grand Father, Father’s brother, elder brother, or Sagotra-Sapindaka or close paternal relatives, Maternal Uncle  or an Agotra Sapinda or Sagotra Asapinda; but in any case, he should be younger to the ‘Vatu’ or the boy to whom Upanayana is scheduled. As a last resort, any ‘Shrotriya’/ Purohita might assume the duty.  Shrotriya is defined as follows: Janmanaa Brahmano jneyat Samskaarai Dwija ucchatey, Vidvatwaachaapi Vipratwam Tribhissrotria Uchatey/ (A Brahmana by birth becomes ‘ a Dwija’ after the Samskaaraas like Upanayana are applied to him; he becomes a ‘Vipra’ once he is a learned person; only then a Brahmana becomes a ‘Shrotriya’. He who is eligible to perform Upanayana should have recited Gayatri Mantra  twelve times of  thousands each; some persons are stated to perform the Japa twelve lakh times! Upanayana Kaala:  Either at the time of  ‘Garbhaarambha’ or birth, the boy whose Upanayana is contemplated should have five years or  eight years.GarbhatoJanmatovaa Panchameshtamey vaa Varsha Brahmanasyopanayanam/ The annotation of Ashvalaayana states: Garbhaashtameshthamey baandey panchamey Saptame shtivaa, Dwijatwam Praapnuyaad Vipro Varshemtwekaadasho Nrupah/ (  From the time that  Garbha took place, the appropriate time for a Upanayana is fifth or seventh, failing which the eleventh year). The suitable time for this Samskaara is eleventh or twelfth year fot Kshatriyas and for Vaishyaas the time would be during the twelfth or the sixteenth year. It is futrther stated :  Shashtheshu Dhana Kaamasya Vidyaa Kaameshu Saptamey, Ashtamey Sarva Kaamasya Navamey kaanti micchitah/ (Persons fond of money in sixth year, those desirous of Vidya or knowledge in the seventh year, those aiming at Sarva Sukha or all round happiness in the eighth year and those who want Shanti or Peacefulness perform Upanayana in the ninth year). Some Brahmanaas believe that th sixth year is inappropriate. The outer age limits are sixteen years for Brahmaaas, twenty two years for Kshatriyas, twenty four years for Vaishyaas; these years are counted from the time of Garbhodaya.  Hence, there is no special  prayaschittha in the case of Brahmanas. Thereafter, he has to keep Shikha after ‘mundana’, eat bhojana of cooked Yaava paste for twenty one nights and at the end provide bhojana to seven Brahmanas. The Prayaschittha beyond that time would be the observance of ‘Krucchaatraya’. To Brahmanas and Kshatriyas mounji bandha or Upanayana is to be performed on Uttaraayana Kaala only. To Vaishyas this might be done in Dakshinaayana too. VasanteyBrahmanamupanayeeta Greeshmey Raajanyam Sharadi Vaishyam,  Maghaadi Shukraantaka Panchamaasaah saadhaara -naavaa sakala Dwijaanaam/ ( Upanayana is to be done in Vasanta  Ritu to Brahmanas in Greeshma and to Vaishyas in Sharad Ritu) But, as Garga stated : In case Vasanta Ritu is not possible, Greeshma- Shishiraas are also in order as the five months  from Maagha to Jyeshtha are normal to Brahmanas. However, keeping in view this  previously stated exception, Pousha and Ashaadha even in Uttaraayana are unsuitable. From the time when Surya enters Meena Rashi to his entry into Mithuna Raashi is thus the most suitable time for Upanayana; this is in view of the Stanza: Makara Kumbhas -eyrkye Madhyamam, Meena Meshasthe Uttamam Vrishabha Meenastyedhamam/ (Makara and Kumbha with Surya is medium, Meena- Meshaas in Surya is the best and Vrishabha and Mithuna is the worst of the combinationsfor performing Upanayana. Coming to Tithis, Dwiteeya, Triteeya, Panchami, Shashthi, Dashami, Ekaadashi, Dwaadashi are the best ones. It is also mentioned elsewhere about Saptami, Trayodashi and Krishna Pratipada but those require ‘Punarupanayana Vidhi’. Somapada Naama Tithis tending to intense Brahmacharya in life, Anadhyaya, Gala graha, and Aparaahna Upanayana demand Punar –upanayana. Somapada Tithis are Jyeshtha Shukla Dwiteeya, Ashviyuja Shukla Dashami and Maagha Shukla Chaturthi and Dwadashi are called Somapada Tithis or those which influence sudued souls taking to Brahmacharya mode. Anadhyaayana Tithis or those during which no new Vedas or Scriptures are learnt viz,  are Purnima, Chaturdashi, Ashtami, Amavasya, Pratipada, Surya Sankranti, Manvaadis, Yugaadis, Kartikaashaadha Phalguna Krishna Dwiteeyas and Ayana Sankraanti or Tula- Makara-Karkataka Pravesha  Pakshinis  are Anadhyaas. Two days afte Sunrise and three Muhurtas before Sunset, the Somapada and Anaadhyaaya Tithis are Anadhyaayaas only. Panditas feel that even one ghati before Pratipada is  not suitable for Upanayana as that would be Anaadhyaya. Some persons do not perform Upanayana on Chaturthi Sesha Yukta Panchami. Navami Sesha Yukta Dashami also is unsuitable for Upanayana. If a day time is divided into three parts, the triteeya bhagaa’s Aparahna is forbidden for Upanayana. Prathama Baaga is the best and Madhya Bhaaga is of medium value. Naimittikaanadhyaaya:  In respect of Vivahaas, Mandapa Pratishtha and such other auspicious  celebrations done by Sagotraas, Upanayana is not to take place in that period, since Brahma Yagnaas also are forbidden  in that period. In case natural disasters take place like Bhu-Kampa / Earth Tremor, Shooting Star attacks, hail storms, thunder storms, cloud bursts , blood rai, then too Upanayanas are not to be performed  for ten days ot atleast a week hence.During untimely rains during Pousha to Chaitra  the days are of Anadhyayana and hence forbidden for Upanayana. Deaths of Guru or his disciples or Ritviks are also unsuitable for Upanayana for three days as they too are the days of Anaadhyayana. Shubha Vaara Nirnaya: In terms of days, Thursday, Friday and Wednesdays are the best for Upanayana. Sunday Muhurtas are stated to be of medium value; Tuesdays and Saturdays are unsuitable although Sama Vedis and Kshatriyas consider Tuesdays are the most suitable. Muhurtha Nirnayas for Upanayanas are difficult to decide as Vaara-Bala-Lagnas are dependent on Veda Shakhaas. Also Varnaadhipatis are Shukra-Brihaspatis to Brahmanas, Surya Angarakas for Kshatriyas and Chandra-Budhas for Vaishyas. Again Vatu’s father , Vatu and mother require Guru Chandra Bala or power if not at least Vatu requires the said Bala.If the Upanayana is to be decided for the eighth year or beyond, then Guru Bala is not essential. In the event of Garbhadaana to be performed in the family as the Upanayana is also contemplated, then Guru Bala is available if his position is in the second, fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh position in the  ‘ janma lagna’ ; in the Janma Triteeya, Shashta, Dashami Sthaana then Puja Homa Shanti would qualify the Upanayana; but Guru in Fourth, Eighth and the Twelfth positions, then Upanayana would not be commended.   Shubha Nakshatra Nirnaya: Purvaphalguni, Poorvaashaadha, Poorvaabhadra, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Moola, Asresha, Ardra, Shravana, are good for Rigvedis. Rohini, Mrigasirsha, Pushya, Punarvasu, Uttata, Uttaraabhadra, Uttaraashaadha, Hasta,  Anuradha, Chitra and Revati are  very good for Yajurvedis; Ashwini, Mrigaseersha, the three Uttata Nakshatras, Ardra, Hasta, Dhanishtha, and Shravana are acceptable to Saama Vedis. If these are unavailable, barring Bharani, Krittika, Makha, Vishakha and  Jyeshtha, any other Nakshtra would be agreeable.Upanayana Lagna Graha Phalaas:  There should be Shubha Grahas in any ‘Sthaana’ excepting  the twelfth, eighth and sixth; in case there are Papa Grahas in the third and eleventh positions and in Shukla Paksha Chandra is in Karka Raashi or Lagna then the Upanayana Nirnaya would be good enough. Some Grandhas mention that Surya in Lagna too would be good. In the Ashtama Sthaana there should not be any Graha. Lagnaadhipati Shukra Chandra should not be in the Sixth Sthaana.Shukra should not be in Dwadhasha Sthana. Chandra and Dushta Grahas should not be in the Lagna. Chandra should not be in Dwadasha and Ashtami.If five Ishta / desirable Grahas are there together, that Lagna should not be selected. Tula, Mithuna, Kanya, Dhanu, Vrishabha , Meena are good in Navaamsha. Karkataka in the Navaamsha is rejected. Again, in the event of the mother  being in menses period, father is unavailable for whatever reason and either maternal uncle or elder brother of the boy is to take up the responsibility, then their wives should  not be in the menses period too  then  neither Upanayana nor wedding  should  be performed. In Upanayana or Vivaha, if the mother of the boy enters the period or is unable to perform the duty for any reason,  before the Naandi Shraaddha Udvaasana or termination of the ‘ Mandapa’ / ‘Vedika’, then Shanti has to be necessarily performed. Padaartha Sankalana: Koupeenam Praavaaram cha kaarpaasajamahatam sampaadya Ishadhoutam navam shwatam sadasham vastramahatam samjnam praavaaraartha majinam vaa/  (Koupeenam and  Upaveeta made  of new white kapaas or  course cotton cloth which is ‘Ahata’ or duly washed and dried be procured; the Upaveeta could   be  of  ‘Krishnaajinam’ or the outer Skin of a Deer of the dimension of four inches width and fortyeight inches length in ‘valayaakaara’ shape. In case of three Khandaas, then three pieces must be of  twenty four inches, eight inches, and sixteen inches. As regards Yagno- paveeta, it has to be of ‘kapaas’ thread woven either by Brahmanas or Brahmnis or Brahmana widows; the measurement  of nine of three  groups  of three-threaded Upaveeta should be of ninety six of ‘Samhata chaturanga -moolas’or each thread of four finger folds tied up in clusters of three each, thus totalling 3+3+3 ie 27 threads in each. Yagnopaveeta should never be short as above the chest or as long as below the navel. If there is cut of a thread or hangs down the navel, then that should be discarded . Yagnopaveeta should not be worn after eats/ bhojana.

Yagnopaveeta dharanaa Vidhi: After Ganesha Prathana of Suklaambaradharam Vishnum Shashi  Varnam Chaturbhujam prasanna vadanam dhyaayet sarva Vighnopashaantaye/ there should be Sankalpa: Mamopaathaa Samasta duritaksaya dwaaraa Shri Paraneshwara Preetyartham Shrouta Smaarta vihita sadaachaara nityakarmaanushthaana yogyataa siddhyartham  Brahma tejobhi vriddhartham yagnopa dhaaranam karishye/ After the Sankalpa: Yagnopaveeta dhaarana Mahaa Mantrasya, Parabrahma Rishih, Trishthup chhandaya Paramatma Devataa, Yagnopaveeta dharanye viniyogah/  Then while wearing each of the three threads separately each  time reciting the Mantra as follows: Yagnopaeetam paramam pavitram Prajaapateryat sahajam purastaat, Ayushyamagriam pratimuscha shubhram yagnopapeetam balamastu tejah/ There-after, prokshana Mantras be recited as follows: Om Aapohishthaa mayo bhuvah, Taana Urjey dadhaatana Maheranaaya chaksasey/  Yovisshavatamo rasah tasyabhaajayateha nah, Usiteeriva Maatarah tasma arangamaavah/ Yasya Kshayaaya jinvatha Aapo janayathaa nah, Bhurbhuvassuvah/ Then the Sacred Thread is touched thrice by way of Abhimantrana of the Three Brahma Granthis praying to Brahma-Vishnu- Maheshwaras. Some pray to nine  Devatas holding the nine threads. This would be followed by ten times Gayatri and  Jala prakshalana of the Upaveeta and  its exposure to Surya Deva reciting the Ruchas viz. Uddhutyam Tamasaspari pashyanto Jyotiruttamam, Devam Devatraa Suryamaganma Jyotiruttamam/ Uddhtyam Jaatavedasam Devam Vahanti Ketavah , Drushey Vishgvaaya Suryam/  Finally after showing the Upaveeta to Surya, wear it reciting  the ‘Yagnopaveetyam Paramam Pavitram’ Mantra again  from the left shoulder around the neck down to the right side of the back. This posture is called ‘Upaveeta’, while the revese is ‘Praacheenaa veeti’ and wearing it around the neck as a Maala or garland is callewd ‘Niveeta’. The Yagnopaveeta Dhaari is required to bathe and change it as per the Vidhi prescribed above in case of touching :Chiti kaashtaa, Chiti Dhuma,  Chandaala, Rajaswalaa, Shava, Sutikaa/( Burnt wood, Chandala, Rajaswala, dead body and Garbhini). At the time of performing ablutions, one should observe Kantha limbana or circling one’s  neck and circling the right ear. Every four months the Sacred Thread should be changed as per the afore mentioned procedure. Also some persons change the old Thread in the eventality of births and deaths of the near ones. At the time of Visarjana or removal of  the old or torn or otherwise impure Yagnopaveeta, the Visarjana Mantra states: Upaveetam Bhinna tantum Jeernam kashmala dushitam, Visrujaamki punarbrahma varcho Deerghaayarastumey!  So saying the Sacred Thread is discarded. If the same has come out or slided off by mistake, then without Mantra wear a replacement and by reciting Manojyotih and Aagney Vratapate Vratam charishyaami taccha-keyam tanmeraadhyataam, Vaayo vratapatey Aditya Vratapatey/ , perform Aajyaahutis and wear a new Yagopaveeta as per the procedure laid as above. Yagnopaveetaabhava Prayaschitta: In case of non-wearing of Yagopaveeta and non-observance of minimum duties expected of a Brahmana, there is a Prayaschittha  Vidhi prescribed. The Sankalpa for this Vidhi is: Yagnopaveeta naasha janya dosha niraasaartham Prayaschittam karishye/  As per the instructions of Acharya, the Kartha has to perform homaas to Savitra Devata / Surya  of thousand eight times or of minimum hundred eight times with Tila and Aajya. On wearing the newYagnopaveeta as per procedure, the Kartha should intensify the Gayatri Japa to atone for the lost time of Sandhyaa -vandanaadi Vidhis. In the case of the non wearing of Upaveeta, then hundred Gayatri Japa is required; if without the Sacred Thread one performs Bhojana, then he has to perform eight thousand Gayatri; if the Upaveeta falls from the  left shoulder to mid-arm or fore arm then three or six Pranaayamaas are to be done and a new Upaveeta is required to be worn. To ‘Brahmachaari’ only one Yagnopaveeta is required but to a Snaataka Vratastha two or three required. Those who desire to live long should wear more than many Sacred threads. So much about the significance of Yagnopaveeta- Dharana- Praayaschittha. Mekhala-Danda-Achamama Vidhi: Mekhala or Kati Sutra or waist string should be  made  of Mounji grass made into three-some  soft ropes with one or three or five Grandhis or bonds with one or three or five knots ie in uneven numbers. If Munja grass is unavailabe then Darbha could be uesed instead or even Ashmanta Vriksha Skin or Balbaja grass. As regards,  danda of a Brahmana  it could be of Palaasha or Ashvathha or Bilwa or Chandana. The length of the stick should cover the height of Vatu from foot to nose and is to be suitable for the Yagna. The next important item by way of the preparatory arrangement for the Upanayana would be  a Vedika or platform raised from Bhumi by four feet of square size with steps on all the sides. The Veika needs to be decorated with four plantain tree trunks in the corners with tender mango leaf ‘toranaas.’ After the Vatu’s readiness for the Upanayana with Vasrtaadi dharana, Aachamana vidhi is to collect water from his palm in Shankha Mudra keeping behind a very small speck of it behind in the palm as Aachamana or sipping in small quantities thrice. This is a Loukika Achamana since the formal one would be done later after Yagnopaveeta dharana. The Vatu would be seated to the north of the Ajya Patra and asked to do Aachamana. Praneeta Patra is at the west of the the Tirtha and the Vatu should be seated to the right side of the Acharya. Then the tasks of Kusha  arrangment, Sruta Patra marjana, Yagnopaveta daana and Aachamanaadi would be done by the Acharya’s Sishya. Then would follow the tasks of pouring water in the Anjali of the Sishya, Samidaadhana and Gayatri Upadesha to the Vatu are done by Acharya as the latter  is faced to the East and the Vatu is seated to face the West.  This is followed by Upa Sangrahana  ( Amuka Pravaraanvitomuka Gotromuka Sharmaahambho Abivaadaye) or the Vatu’s announcement of his Gotra Pravara Naama while his right hand touches his left ear and left hand touches his right ear, bows and greets the Guru with veneration and later on repeats the Pravara to the father and mother, elders in the family and other elders among invitees. But the ‘Abhivadana’ has to be restricted to only the derserving , those in ‘Ashuchis’, and so on since such Namaskaaraas, let alone ‘Pravaraanvita Abhivaadaas’would attract prayaschitthas ranging from Upavaasaas Kruccha Vrataas etc. On the other hand if Namaskaaraas and Abhivaadanas are nor performed to Devas, Gurus, Yatis and seniors the family or Vamsha or Vidwans and other Learned Persons then tooo there would be Upavaasaadi prayaschithaas. Equally important are Pratyabhi-vaadanas or return blessings by those elders with Ayushmaan bhava Soumya Dataaa etc.Where required the end of the sentence should be in medium svara(plut). For eg for Hare it should be  recomposed to Hara + I and for Shambho it should be reduced to Shambha + u. In this connection, a clarification was quoted from Manu Smriti: Brahmana Brahmachari would state Bhavati Bhikshaam Dehi;  a Kshatriya Vatu would say: Bhikshaam bhavati dehi while a Vaishya Vatu would say: Bhikshaam debi bhavati/ Since the general statement in respect of ‘Tandula Bhiksha’ or request for Food Grains, the Pratyabhi –vaadana would be Bhikshaan bhavaan dadaatu, Bhikshaam bhavati dadaatu/ Vinaayaka and Graha Shantis: It is customary to perform Vinayaka Shanti in connection with Upanayanaas and Vivaahas to forestall any difficulties. This Shanti is best done on Shukla Chaturthis poissibly on Thursdays. The suitable Nakshatras are Pushya, Shravana, Uttara, Rohini, Hasta, Ashwini, Mrigaseersha. There should be coordination of the Upanayanadi Muhurthas and Vinayaka Shanti days and Nakshatras. Following the Vinakaka Shanti, Graha Makha is to be followed to overcome any deficiencies in the positions of concerned Grahas in particular and of Navagrahas in general. Also the Homaas would prevent Arishtas and natural disasters. Ideally there should be nine Ritviks including the Acharya so that each Ritvik could perform homaas to propitiate two Grahas. Besides Charu and Ajya , the material required for the Homa Karyas include samidhas of Arka, Palaasha, Khadira, Apaamarga, Gulara, Shami, Kushaadi. Whatever number of Homas are done to Suryaadi Prathana Grahas would decide one tenth of the Homas to be done to Adhidevatas and Prayadhi Devatas and accordingly the number of Ritviks and Brahmana bhojana dakshinas too. Brihaspati Shanti: On the occasions of Upanayana for Kumara and Vivaha of Kanya, Brihaspati Shanti is also considered useful separately. After setting a white kalasha filled with Sacred water mixed with Pancha gavyas, Kushodaka, and Aoushadhis the Brahaspati Pratima is to be installed , decorated with yellow clothes,yellow Yagnopaveeta, yellow flowers, and Harodraakshatas and Shodashopacharas done .The Naivedya would include Dadhyanna. Thereafter, Abhiksheka with the Kalashodaka is performed with the Mantras: Gambhira dhrudha rupaana devejya Sumatey Prabho, Namastevaakpatey Shaanta Grihaanaarghyam Namostutey/ This would be followed by Homa Puja with the Mantra: Bhaktyaayattey Suraachaarya Homa Pujaadi satkrutam, Tatwam Grihaana Shantyartham Brihaspatey Namo namah/ Jeevo Brihaspatissuri raachaaryo Guru rangiraah, VaachasatirDeva Mantreem Shubham kuryaat sadaa mama/ After Brihaspati Pratimaa daana, the Ritviks would perform Abhisheka to the Karta and Vatu with the following Ruchas: Apohishthaa, Tatwaayaami Brahmanaa, Swaadishthayaa madishthayaa, Samudra Jyeshthaassalilasya, Idamaapaha pravahata, aamagni Varnaa, Yaa Aoushadhih, etc. Samskaara lopa Prayaschittas: A day before the Upanayana, the Vatu is advised to observe Krucchatraya Vrata or in place of it Rajata Daana coupled with a resolve that after the Upanayana he would perform a total of over Twelve thousand Gayatri Japa. Then if Poorva Sanskaaraas since birth were not performed in the past, then the father should make a Sankalpa: Asya Kumaarasya Pumsdavanaa -deenaa madhavaa Jaata karmaadeenaam Choulaantaanaam Samskaaraanaam kaalaatipatti janita prtatyavaaya parihaaradwaaraa  Shri Parameshwara preetyartham prati samskaarara meykaikam Bhurbhuvah swassyaaheti samasta vyaahrutyaajjyahutim hoshyaami/ ( As this Kumara’s Pumsavanaadi, Jaatakarmaadi Samskaraas till  Choula  Karma were time barred and to atone the sins of not performing these, I seek mercy to Paramatma and am now making prayaschitta to each Samskara not executed , may I offer the required number of ‘Ghritaahutis’with the Mantra of Om Bhuru Bhuyvaaswaahaa as per the required number.) Then after doing the needful, the next Sankalpa states: Since the son’s Pumsavana- Anavalobhana-Seemantotrayana-Jaata Karma-Naama Karma- Suryavalokana-Nishkramana-Upaveshana-Annapraashana-Choula Samskaaraadi  were not done, there has been a cumulative sin and in order to cover up  the deficienies, may I some what offer compensations by way of Special Samskaaraas in the form of Artha- Paada kruccha Prayaschittaas, for Choula Karma offer Artha Krucchaa  or ‘Go mulya bhuta Rajata Dravya daana’or that much of silver and cash as needed for buying a cow. Futher to this, the Karta, his wife and Kumara Vatu beseated together and the Bharta would make the Sankalpa: ‘To eliminate the blemish of the Kumara in swallowing the liquid while in his mother’s womb, to develop his brain and longevity, to remove the ‘dosha’ of staying in the ‘Maatru Garbha’ for nine months, to offset the flaw of non-performance of the child’s Jaata Karma, Nama Karma, Suryaavalokana, Annapraashana and other imperfections and grant him with physical capability and mental faculties. Then the Vatu should make the Sankalpa as follows: ‘May Parameshrara be pleased and bless me in connection with tomorrow’s  forthcoming Karmas to me viz. Choodaa-Karma, Upanayana, Dwijatwa Siddhi, eligibility for Vedaadhayana, Jaatyaadi Sampurna Samskara Punyahyvachana, Maatrukaa Pujana, Nandi Shraaddha, Upanayanaanga Mandapa Pujana, Kula Devataa Shtaapana etc. Upanayana Dina Karyakrama: After the Jaata Choula Karma either on the day or the previous, the Vatu should have ‘Abhyangana Snaana’ and take his food with his mother [Some say along with his sister] customarily along with other Brahmacharis. There after, the father of the boy would make the Sankalpa: Asya Kumarasya Dwijatwa Siddhi dwaara Shri Parameshwara preetyartham Gayatryupadesham kartrum tatpraachyaanga bhutam vaapanaadi karishye! (To seek Dwijatwa of this son of mine, may I pray to Parameshwara to bless him to perform Gayatri Upadesha on his bodily purification by way of Angabhuta Vapana or ‘ Mundana’) ; this head-shaving ceremony be done in a manner that the ‘Shikha’ is retained as a tuft. On completion of the Mundana Ceremony, the Vatu is bathed, face-decorated with Kalyana Tilaka on the forehead, clothed by the designated Vastra-Anga Vastra, Koupeena, Mounji Darbhaadi mekhala etc. and after Jyoti Puja on the predetermined Shubha Muhurta made to enter the Vedika as Purbaabhi Mukha (East-faced) to the Acharya. Once the screen in between the Vatu and the Acharya is removed, the Vatu would perform ‘Saashtaanga Namaskaara’ or Prostration and the Acharya  would make the Vatu seated on his lap even while the Acharya and  Brahmanas would bless the Vatu and his parents with ‘Akshataas’ on their heads. This would be followed by the secret Upadesha of Gayatri and other relevant  Mantras as per the procedure but taking care of the pronouncement of the Gayatri Mantra vachana  without Sandhi krutam Varna  Vikaaram /  (or Sandhis and mispronouncement of Alphabet Letters) and Brahmana bhojana be organised to as many as possible along with Dakshina. The new Brahmachari would subsequently approach the parents foremost and the other near and dear relatives along with a ‘Bhiksha Paatra’ seeking ‘Tandula’ or rice grains saying: Chatussarara paryantam Go-Brahmaebhyasshubham bhavatu; Aangeerasa-Ambareesha- Yavanaashwaadi Risheya Pravaraanvita Haridasa Gotrasya  Aapastamha Sutrassya Krishna Yajusshakhaadhyaayi, Krishna Koustubha Sharma naama dheyasya  ahambho abhivaadaye; mama bhikshaam dadaatu/ [Note: The Rishi Traya-Gotra-Veda Shakha-Namadheyaas to be substituted as applicable to individual cases]  The ‘Bhiksha Dravya’ has to be given away to the Acharya since the bhiksha is being collected on behalf of the Acharya. The Madyahnika Sandhya has to be taught by the Acharya or aleast in the presence of the Acharya. Some persons however opine that the Brahma Yagna be performed on the next day  first  then Gayatri be taken up. Garjitaamshita Shanti: In case there is any apprehension of cloud formation or sounds of clouds before the Pravachaniya Homa, then Charu Paaka Shravana be performed and in the evening by Suryastama then the Homa be followed up. But if ‘Megha Garjana’ is continued even before the Charu Paaka is made then Shanti be perfomed as follows: Brhamoudana Paakaat poorvam garjitena suchitasya Brahmachaari katrukaadhyayana vighnasya niraasa dwaaraa Shri Parameshwara preethyartham Shantim karishye/ (In case before Brahmoudana Paaka there ocuur big cloud reverberations disturbing the schedule of Adhyayana Vidhi of a Brahmacharias a part of Upanayana Karya then I seek the clemency of Parameshwara  and bestow His blessings for intervention.). The Sankalpa  would be followed up by Swasti Vachanaas, Agni Pratishtha and Ghrita -mishra Payasaahutis to Surya with Gayatri Mantra and Brihaspati Sutra, Go daana and Bramhana  Bhojana.

Upanayanagni Sthirata Nirnaya: It is essential that the Agni intiated  before ‘Medhaajanana’must last till the end of the Agni Karyaas in the context of Upanayana. If there is any deficiency on this count, Agni has to be revived for Punaraahutis.Out of the three principal aspects of the Adya -yanaangas viz. Gayatri Upadesha-Pravachaniya Homa-Medha Janana which are Agni-Oriented,  any disturbance or termination to Agni be rectified with Kati Sutra Dharana and other Maanava Samskaara-Vakshaarana but there might not be repetition of the stages of the Upanayana already covered.. Having thus rectified the deficiency of the Agni, the Vatu must himself perform the ‘ Sayam Sandhya Karya’ and the Pravachaneeya Homa. If unable to cook the Charu and arrya on the Karyas till Shravana he might accept assistance from Brahmanas but the Homa must be performed by the Brahmachari himself. The remaining Charu must be consumed by three Brahnmanas.                                                                                                              Vatu Vratas: Kshouraadi varjyamashneeyad Brahmachaari dina -trayam, Shayeetaadhaschatur dhehni medhaa Jananamaacharet/ Yadwaadwadasha raatram –syaadabda vrata mathaapivaa/ (Brahmachari has to discard hair-cuts and shaving for three days and eat only bland ‘Havishya’ which is the bland  remainder of the Charu offered to Agni in the homas without salt and pepper and sleep on the ground without the comfort of a bed; on the fourth day he should have ‘Medhaa Janana Vithi’ as per procedure prescribed  or perform Kshama Vrata for twelve nights failing with a year-long Vrata of do’s and don’ts.  Mandapa Devatodwaasana: The suitable day for Mandapodwaasana would be a Krama Dina after the ‘ Sthtapana Dina’or the inaugural first day of the Mandapa or on its even day or the fifth or the seventh day. On this occasion of Mandapodwasana day ie from Naandi Shraaddha till the Udvasana of Mandapa Maatru Devataas,  there should not be any Sapinda Darshana Shraaddhaas,  Kshaya Shraaddhaas, Mrita Din Shraaddhaas, cold water baths,  Apasavyas or Praaceenaatis of Yagnopa- veetaas in the Vamsha,  Swadhaa Smaranas, Nitya Shraaddhaas, Brahma Yagnaas, Vedaa -dhyayanas, crossing of rivers or boundaries of the Villages or townships, Upavasa Vratas, and Shraddha Bhojanas.Vaishwa Deva should not hear the Swadhaakara and Swadhaa Shabdas on this day.  Eligibility Norms for Upanayana: Upanayana may be performed to any of the Brahmana-Kshatriya-Vaishyaas even to the blind, hard-hearer, or any boy with any kid of physical disability or the progeny of mentally retarded. If a person who has no faculty of speech, he could certainly perform Gayatri Japa as long as he could see, understand and think and so on. Punarupanayana:  Non performance of duties expected  of a person as per the duties presumed calls for Pratyavayana. Repeat of the Upanayana Samskaara occurs on three counts : Pratyavaya or Prayaschitta of not performing the duties expected; second eventuality of Punarupanayana is due to the fact that the earlier one  was done without performing the Jatakarma nor prayaschitta karmas were not done on time or  particular methods of performing the earlier one were defective; the third reason was that Punarupanayana was felt complimentary by Shrotriyas for regular Vedaadhyana and to get the Brahmachari qualified as a fulfledged Vipra. The Rigvedis and Yajurvedis defined separate ‘doshas’ or blemishes demanding prayaschitthas that necessitated Punarupanayana besides the obvious reason of Vedaadhyana. :[[The following  Pages are being quoted from the series of the Essence of Puranas prepared by the same author released by the Kanchi Kamakoti Website viz.  kamakoti.org/news as given in the Essence of Devi Bhagvata Purana and the Essence of Narada Purana. The same is shown under the common Title of Sandhya Vandana Vidhana. Two Versions are given here- under:



Nama Karana, Anna praashana, Chooda Karma and Vidyaarambha

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