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MARKANDEYA PURANA

Bhagwan Shiv

Accounts of further Manus- Uttama, Tamasa, Daivata, Chakshusa, and Vaivasvatha

Mahatma Markandeya narrated further to Sage Kroushtiki about the birth of the third Manu named Uttama. The grandson of the first Manu Swayambhu named Uttanapaada was blessed with a son named Uttam who became the King after his father passed away. In a weak moment when the new King was in the company of a dancing girl became angry with his wife Bahula and asked his ‘dwarapalaka’ to abadon her in a forest; he regretted later but could not find her subsequently.

After the lapse of time, one Brahmana called Susharma approached the King with a complaint that his wife was kidnapped and she should be recovered by the King. The King sent his men in and outside his Kingdom but there was no trace. Finally, he approached a ‘Trikaalagnya’ (who knows the Past, Present and Future) who by the power of his ‘Divya dhrishti’ (Celestial Vision) found out that she was under the custody of a ‘Rakshasa’.The King succeeded in locating the Rakshasa and controlled him and restored the Brahmana woman to Susharma. The Sage also informed that the Queen Bahula was under duress of a Nagaraja named Salapotaka in Patala who tried to force her to marry him but the queen did not relent. The Nagaraja then asked Bahula to look after the Naga princess who was dumb and deaf and since then the queen was serving the Naga daughter. The King with the help of the Rakshasa reached Patala to bring back the queen once again and sought pardon from her for his erstwhile foolish act of abandoning her. The queen no boubt pardoned him but desired that the dumb Naga girl be somehow got cured. The King asked the grateful Susharma and the latter did the ‘Sarasvata Sukta Parayana’ (recitation of the Prayers to Goddess Sarasvati, the Goddess of Learning and Speech Power). The Naga girl regained her speech; the Brahmana retrieved his wife, the King gained the queen. A Muni named Karna blessed the King Uttama, who no doubt did the indiscretion of abandoning his wife Bahula but regretted sincerely, provided constant and effective help to Susharma, to his own queen, and to the Naga daughter. The Muni gave a boon to the King to secure a son, who would also bear his father’s name and that he would be the Third Manu Uttama controlling the entire world!

There was a King named Surashtra who had hundred wives but without a single issue. The King prayed to Sun God to extend his life-term, but all his wives died. He was tired of life and took to severe ‘Tapas’ (meditation) by standing single legged in top summer under scorching Sun amid ‘Panchagnis’ or Five Fire Pits; in rainy season withstanding torrential water from the Skies and in acute winter time under cold water bodies. During heavy rains once, he got carried away in a flood by holding the tail of a female deer and was washed away ashore. He expressed interest in making love to her, but the deer talked in a woman’s voice and said that she was already pregnant and was actually the first wife that very King; in her childhood, she ran after a deer couple ready for mating and the male deer said she would curse her and when asked as to how she could talk in human voice, she replied that he was the son of a Muni in his earlier life and mated a she deer and was thus reborn as a ‘Jatismara’ with the knowledge of earlier life. The Muni Kumar turned as deer then got ready to curse the Princess unless the latter was ready to mate with him. The Princess refused and the deer cursed her to become a she deer in two successive births. In the second birth of the she deer, originally the first wife of the King Surashtra, delivered a boy and the deer died after delivery. The King brought up the boy as Lola, called with the pet name of Tamasa who became the fourth Manu and ruled over the whole world.

Sage Rutavaak did not get any child for long time and finally a son was born in the fourth ‘Paada’ (phase) of Revati ‘Nakshatra’ (Star) who turned out to be a wicked person and brought name. The Sage approached Maha Muni Garga to consult as to what might be the remedy and since that was due to the evil effect of the fourth phase of Revati, nothing could be done. By the virtue of his power of ‘Tapas’, Sage Rutvaak cursed the fourth phase of the Star which fell on the top of the Kumuda Mountain subsequently known as Raivataka Mountain. That part of the Star turned out as a ‘Sarorava’ ( a water body), out of which emerged a baby girl whom a Sage called Pramucha brought up as Revati. The Muni requested Agni Deva for a suitable husband and it was settled that a boy named Durdama would be wedded to the girl. Revati insisted that her wedding be performed in her birth star only and since the fourth phase of the Revati Star was no longer existent, the Sage had to revive the same and the offspring of Revati and Durdama was named Raivata, who became the fifth Manu.

A King by name Anamishra and his wife Giribhadra begot a boy who laughed away when the mother was fondling the boy. As to what was reason for his loud life, the boy replied that there was a cat looking rather grim at the child. The mother got frightened and ran away from the Scene. At that time, a ‘Rakshasi’ arrived and quietly replaced the child with that of another child of a Brahmana couple and ate away the Brahmana child. After some time, the boy named Vikranta was asked to take the blessing of his mother at the time of his Upanayana (Holy-thread) function, Vikranta questioned whether he should greet the real mother or the duplicate one. He said that his real mother was Giribhdra and sought permission to go away for performing ‘Tapas’. Lord Brahma was pleased and sought for a boon from the boy who asked for ‘Atma Shuddhi’. Then Brahma appointed Vikranta as the next and the sixth Manu and named him as Chakshusa as the sixth Manu, since he was born before his eye-sight.

Vishwakarma’s daughter Devi Sanjna was the wife of Surya Deva and their son is the seventh and the present Manu called Vaiwasvata, since he is the son of Viwaswan. As Surya Deva is too powerful, Devi Sanjna could not withstand the extreme radiance and heat of his form and was unable to fully open her eyes and Surya got annoyed and scolded that she would give birth to ‘Praja samyama paranaya’ or the Deity of Yama, who keeps the control and regulation of human beings in a fearsome manner. Sanjna was still afraid of Surya and glanced at him with wobbly and unsteady eyes; Surya cursed her that she would give birth to River Yamuna whose course too highly uneven.Devi Sanjna was unable to hold the wrath of her husband any further and shifted to her father’s house. There she created a ‘Chhaya Sanjana ‘(Shadow of hers) and briefed her to pretend as the original Sanjana. The Chhaya Sanjna assured the Original that till such time that Surya Deva did not touch her hair nor discover the fact otherwise, there might not be any problem. Surya Deva once confronted Chhaya Sanjna as to where be Sanjna; she said that she was Sanjna alright! Surya called Sanjna’s father and Viswakarma conveyed that after her return from his house, she must have returned to Surya Deva only! Then Surya Deva in his celestial vision found that the real Sanjna was meditating for Surya Deva in the form of a mare in Bhu Loka.Then Surya Deva was pleased to note that Sanjna was indeed fond of him, but was unable to bear his heat and sparkle. Then Vishvakarma as also Devas prayed to Surya Deva as follows:

Namasthey Rukswarupaaya Samarupaaya namah,
Yajusswarupa  rupaaya Saamnaam dhamavatuy namah/
Jnaanaika dhama bhutaya nirdhuta tamasenamah,
Shuddha Jyotisswarupaya vishuddhay amalatmaney/
Chakriney shankhine dhaamney Padmine namah,
Varishtthaya Varenyaya Paramasmai Paramaatmaney/
Namokhila Jagadvyaapiswarupaatma murtaye/
Sarva kaarana bhutaaya nishthaai Jnanachetasaam,
Namah Surya swarupaaya Prakaashaatma swarupiney/
Bhaskaraya namastubh tatha Dinakrutey namaha,
Sharvari hetaye chaiva, Sandhya jyotsnaakrutenamah/
kriyate twatkaraih sparshayaajjwaladeenaam pavitrata,
Homadaanaadiko dharmonopakaaraaya jaayatey/
Taavadyaavanna samyogi jagadedattvadamshubhih,
Ruchastey sakalaahyota Yajumshyetaanichaanyatah/
Sakalaani cha Saamaani nipataanti twadgatah,
Trayamyastvam Jagannatha twameva cha Yajuryamah/
Yatah Saamamachaschaiva tatho NathaTrayeemayah,
Twameva Brahmano rupam Param cha Paramevacha/
Murtha murthastatha sookshmaha shthoolarupastatha shithah,
Nimeshakaashtadimayah Kaalarupah Kshayaatmakah/
Praseeda swechhaya rupam stejahshaminam kuru.

(You are of Rukswarupa or of the Form of Rig Veda, Sama Veda Swarupa, Yajur Veda Swarupa, You are the main fulcrum of Gyana, Destroyer of Darkness, the Pure Form of Illumination, Vishuddha Paramatma (Embodiment of the Cleanest Soul); My Greetings to You, who holds the Shankha, Chakra, Saaranga and Padma (Conchshell,Discus, Lotus and musical Saranga);You are the Eldest, the Best, the Super Soul, the All-Pervading, the Nishtha (Epitome of Purity), the Great Reason of Reasons, Surya, Prabhakar, Bhaskara, Dinakara; You are the Night, the Sandhya or the Dusk, or the Jyotsna (Twilight); You are the Embodiment of the Great Illumination); You are the Universe and the Awakenness; You are the unique source of world-wide luminosity for all the animate and inanimate species; the mere touch of Your rays make the day, the twilight and the darkness; they enliven the Murthis, Scriptures, Vedas, the Tinieset and the most Gigantic etc.) Further to the request of Devas and of Viswakarma, Surya Deva discarded the endless radiance; from out of the ‘Rukmaya Tejas’ of Surya was created Prithvi, Yajurmaya Tejas was created Akash and from Samamaya Tejas was created Swarga; Twashta took away fifty percent of Surya’s original Energy out of which were generated Maha Deva’s Trishul, Lord Vishnu’s Chakra, ‘Daruna Shakti’ or the Annihilating Power of Vasuganas and Vayu as also of Kubera’s ‘Palki, ‘Astras’  of Yakshas and Vidyadharas. Vishwakarma too took away fifteenth part. After absorbing the original power, finally Surya was left with sixteenth form of the original Energy! (Reading or hearing the above Surya Stotra not only brings about excellent Peace of Mind but also good health). Later on Surya Deva assumed the Form of a Horse and appeared at Uttara Kuru Varsha where Devi Sanjna was meditating in the form of a mare. Thinking that the horse was a Stranger, the mare sought to secure her back and faced the horse and in the process their noses got entangled and two sons named ‘Naasatya’ and ‘Dastra’ were born; thereafter a horse-riding son with Charma (Shield), Varma
(Kavacha), Khadga (Sword) and Arrows with courage and strength named Revanta was born. Sanjna Devi was pleased that her Tapas in lessening the extraordinary illumination and heat of Surya Deva was fructified and returned back together. The next issue who was the eldest son of Sanjna was named Viwasvata Manu. Besides Yama and Yamuna, Surya Deva also begot the twin Ashvani Kumars from her. As Surya owned Sanjna-Chhaya Devi too, the next son was born as Saavarni Manu. Shaneswara was born to Surya Deva from Chhaya Devi and so did River Tapati.

During the Vaivaswa Manvantara, Markandeya confirmed that there are eight Devatas viz. Aditya, Vasu, Rudra, Saadhya, Viswva, Marut, Bhrigu, and Angira. Among these, Aditya, Vasu, and Rudragana were the progeny of Kashyap; Sadhya, Vasugana and Viswagana were the children of Dharma; Bhrigugana Devata were the sons of Bhrigu and Angiragana were the sons of Angira; this ‘Sarga’ (Classification) is known as Maricha Sarga. In this Manvantara too, Urjasvi Indra is the ‘Yagnabhagabhuk’ or the Consumer of Parts of Yagna; he was, is and shall be the Yagnabhagabhuk. Indra also is the Sahasraaksha, Vajradhari, and Purandara, Maghva, Vrisha Shringadhari, Gajagaami,    Shatayagnakaari and Bhutaparaabhavakari as always. In this Manvantara, the Sapta Rishis are Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa, Goutama, Bharadvaj, Kushikanandana, and Vishwamitra.Vaivaswata Manu’s sons are Ikshvaaku, Naabhaga, Dhrishta, Sharyati, Naarishyant, Naabhaaga, Dishta, Karush, and Prushghra.( Contents of this Vaivaswata Manvantara narration- either read or heard-would instantly destroy sins and enhance the account of Punyabhoga). Future Manus include Saavarni the eighth; Daksha Saawarni the son of Daksha the ninth; Brahma Saavarni, the son of Brahma, the tenth; Dharma Saavarni the eleventh Manu, the son of Dharma; and Rudra Saavarni, the son of Rudra, the twelfth Manu.The thirteenth Manu would be Rouchya and Bhauthya the fourteenth.

Markandeya Purana Home   Next: DEVI MAHATMYA- Maha Maya enables Vishnu to kill the Demon Brothers Madhu and Kaitabha

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