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Essence Of Raja Tarangini


Bhagvat Purana
Shankaracharya Hill, Kashmir

Kalhana’s Rajatarangini is a work relating the Parampara of kings that ruled Kashmir. It is written by Kalhana in the form of poems in eight chapters termed Tarangas (Waves) describing the lives and exploits of these kings and the conditions that prevailed in Kashmir during their times. This way it contributes to the study of history of that region during those times. This study is based upon the book written by M.A.Stein, who has translated this work in English from the Sanskrit original.

Essence of the FOURTH BOOK
The fourth Taranga starts with the invocaton of  Ardhanareesvara Shiva with matted locks entwined with snakes
Durlabhavardhana, the son-in-law of Baladitya, who became king after Baladitya, had a son Malhana, who died young. Having consecrated in Srinagari the shrine of Durlabhasvamin (Vishnu),  Durlabhavardhana died after a rule of thirty-six years.
Durlahaka, his son born from Anangalekha succeeded him as Durlabhaka-Pratapaditya  II.. He built Pratapapura. He married Narendraprabha and got through her sons, Candrapida, Tarapida and Muktapida (Avimukthapida) These three sons were also known by the names, Vajraditya, Udayaditya and Lalitaditya.  King Durlabha ruled for fifty years and then passed away.
Candrapida became king after him. He built a temple for Tribhuvanasvamin (Vishnu) in the land of a tanner (a paria-asparsya), after buying that land from him according to Dharma. His wife Prakasha Devi founded Prakasikavihara. His Guru  Mihiradatta, built a temple for Vishnu Gambhirasvamin. His city-prefect called Chalitaka built the temple for Chalitasvamin (Vishnu). Candrapida rendered justice to his subjects after carefully verifying  the facts from all angles (iv. 82-105). He passed away after ruling for eight years and eigh tmonths.
Tarapida, his brother succeeded him. He was a wicked king and ruled for four years, and one month less six days.
Lalitaditya (Muktapada) who came next  was eager for conquests and  spent his life chiefly on expeditions.(iv. 131) He won over Yashovarman of Kanyakubja and then went to the eastern Region, and from there to the South to Karnata, conquering all the way. He then passed on to Kaunkanas on the western coast, an from there to Dvaraka and from there to Avanti. From there he went North to conquer Tuhkaras (iv. 166). He then proceeds to Pragjyotisha in the east, and from there to the land of the UttaraKurus and granted the territories of  Jalandhar, Lohara and others to his attendants. The mighty king made the conquered rulers, in order to indicate their defeat, adopt various characteristic marks, which they and their people wear humbly even at this present day. Clearly it is by his command, to display the mark of their bondage, that the Turushkas carry their arms at their back and shave half their head,(iv. 178-179)

After his expedition he built a town called Sunischitapura and Darpitapura with a temple therein for Keshava. In the Shrirajya, he  placed an image of Nrihari (Narasimha), which was suspended in the air by two powerful magnets, placed one above and one below. (iv. 185) . At Hushkapura (Ushkur  Near here a colossal Linga 10ft high is noticed- M.A.S’s footnote (iv 188)) he built a temple for Muktasvamin (Vishnu) and a large vihara with a stupa. Having taken one crore (Kinnara currency), when he proceeded for the conquest of the worls, he presented on return eleven crores to Bhutesa  (Shiva) as an offering (iv189), and built a lofty temple of stone for  Jyeshtha rudra, and made a grant of land and villages (to the temple) (iv. 190) At Chakradhara, he made an arrangement for  conducting the water of the Vitasta, and distributing it to various villages through  water-wheels. (iv. 191). He built a wonderful shrine for Martanda with massive walls of stone.
 Thereafter he built the towns of Lokapunya, and Parihasa pura with a temple for Parihasakeshava with 84000 palas of silver. He built an image of Muktakeshava where in he put 84000 tolakas of gold. With as many  thousands of prasthas of copper, he built a large image for Buddha.He had a silver image of Govardhanadhara made and a great stone pillar, 54 hands high with a standard of Garuda on its top. His queen Kamalavati putup a large silver image of kamala keshava.
Chakramardika, wife of King Lalitaditya built there Chakrapura with seven thousand dwellings.(iv 213). Likewise, His wife Isana devi constructed a well. Which gave health to the ailing.  His ministersMitrasarman, Tuhkaracankuna, his teacher Bhappata, physician Isanacandra, all built temples and Viharas in his time. He organized a great festival  (Sahasrabhakta)in Parihaspura and in that festival gave away lakh and one dishes of food (bhakta) besides dakshina.
Kuvalayapida, his son by Kamaladevi, became king after Lalitaditya. passed away. He ruled for one year and half a month departed to Sriparvata and other holy places.
Vajraditya his half brother and son of  chakramardika, the other wife of Lalitaditya, became king.. being wicked he  withdrew from Parihasapura, the various foundations granted by his father.. He died after seven years. His son Prtivyapida, born to queen Manjarika  succeeded him and ruled for four years and one month. He was overthrown by Samgramapida, son of Bappiya from queen Mamma. He ruled for seven days only.
After Samgramapida’s death, King Jayapida,  the youngest son of Bappiya succeeded him.
 He married the Gauda princess Kalyanidevi. (iv 467) and defeated the king of Kanyakubja in battle. His wife Kalyani devi founded Kalyanapura. (iv 483) The king built Malhana pura  and established a shrine for  Vipulakeshava. The king reintroduced the  study of Mahabhashya in his country , which had been interrupted. (iv 488), by bringing in competent expositors. He attached to himself Thakkiya, who had been superintendent in the bhaktasala ( The term  bhaktasala refers to place where food (bhakta) is distributed in charity} of the minister Shukradanta. (iv494). He had many distinguished poets in his court along with the ministers. The king with the help of rakshasas built a castle (kotta) of Jayapura. He also built a town called Vinayadityapura in the  eastern region. (iv 517).He escaped twice from being captured, once by King Bhimasena and again by King Aramudi of Nepal (iv 521-580). Jayapida finally died due to Brahmanadanda. His mother Amritaprabha
 built a temple fro Amritakesava for the deliverance of her son. (iv 659)
He was succeeded by his son born from queen Durga. He was a wicked king and ruled for twelve years. Samgramapida  II who came after him followed him after seven years.
Cippatajayapida, also called Brhaspati,  the child son of Lalitapida became king. His mother jayadevi was the daughter of spirit-distiller. After twelve years’ rule he was killed in the year 813 A.D (Laukila Era three thousand eight hundred eightynine). Tribhuvanapida, the son of king Bappiya and queen Meghavali, had a son by name Ajitapida. He was put in the throne by force after Cippatajayapida, by his eldest uncle Utpala.(iv. 689-690). Still the kingdom was masterless as the king was dependent on the account offices called Seda. (iv. 691-694) Ajitapida was overthrown and Anangapida, the son of Sangramapida  II was installed king.. After him Utpalpida became king. Though these rulers were kings, the ministers and others ruled the kingdom.(iv 710-712) Avantivarman was made king in the year 855A.D.

                        Thus ends the Fourth Taranga of Rajatarangini.
This essence of the Rajatarangini has been prepared by Sri. S. Chidambaresan, devotee of Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetam. The author can be contacted at sankarachidambaram@yahoo.com

Read the other Tarangas

Tarangini1    Tarangini2    Tarangini3     Tarangini4    Tarangini5     Tarangini6



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